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Recent Advances and the Potential for Clinical Use of Autofluorescence Detection of Extra-Ophthalmic Tissues
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Autofluorescence in Plants

Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3046, New Zealand
Academic Editor: Anna Cleta Croce
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102393
Received: 9 April 2020 / Revised: 16 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autofluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging)
Plants contain abundant autofluorescent molecules that can be used for biochemical, physiological, or imaging studies. The two most studied molecules are chlorophyll (orange/red fluorescence) and lignin (blue/green fluorescence). Chlorophyll fluorescence is used to measure the physiological state of plants using handheld devices that can measure photosynthesis, linear electron flux, and CO2 assimilation by directly scanning leaves, or by using reconnaissance imaging from a drone, an aircraft or a satellite. Lignin fluorescence can be used in imaging studies of wood for phenotyping of genetic variants in order to evaluate reaction wood formation, assess chemical modification of wood, and study fundamental cell wall properties using Förster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) and other methods. Many other fluorescent molecules have been characterized both within the protoplast and as components of cell walls. Such molecules have fluorescence emissions across the visible spectrum and can potentially be differentiated by spectral imaging or by evaluating their response to change in pH (ferulates) or chemicals such as Naturstoff reagent (flavonoids). Induced autofluorescence using glutaraldehyde fixation has been used to enable imaging of proteins/organelles in the cell protoplast and to allow fluorescence imaging of fungal mycelium. View Full-Text
Keywords: autofluorescence; chlorophyll; lignin; suberin; phenolic acids; flavonoids; tannins; FLIM; FRET; spectral unmixing autofluorescence; chlorophyll; lignin; suberin; phenolic acids; flavonoids; tannins; FLIM; FRET; spectral unmixing
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Donaldson, L. Autofluorescence in Plants. Molecules 2020, 25, 2393.

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