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Genotype-Related Differences in the Phenolic Compound Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves

1
Department of Food Technology, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Namik Kemal University, 59030 Tekirdağ, Turkey
2
Department of Chemical and Physical Properties of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Field Crops Department, Agricultural Faculty, Namik Kemal University, 59030 Tekirdağ, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061130
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Bioactives: From Molecules to Human Health)
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Abstract

The phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts of nine olive genotypes were determined, and the obtained data were analysed using chemometric techniques. In the crude extracts, 12 compounds belonging to the secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids were identified. Oleuropein was the primary component for all genotypes, exhibiting a content of 21.0 to 98.0 mg/g extract. Hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and luteolin 4′-O-glucoside were also present in noticeable quantities. Genotypes differed to the greatest extent in the content of verbascoside (0.45–21.07 mg/g extract). The content of hydroxytyrosol ranged from 1.33 to 4.03 mg/g extract, and the aforementioned luteolin glucosides were present at 1.58–8.67 mg/g extract. The total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ability to inhibit the oxidation of β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion also varied significantly among genotypes. A hierarchical cluster analysis enabled the division of genotypes into three clusters with similarity above 60% in each group. GGE biplot analysis showed olive genotypes variability with respect to phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activities. Significant correlations among TPC, FRAP, the values of both radical scavenging assays, and the content of oleuropein were found. The contents of 7-O-glucoside and 4′-O-glucoside correlated with TPC, TEAC, FRAP, and the results of the emulsion oxidation assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive leaf extract; phenolic profile; antioxidant activity; GGE biplot analysis; cluster analysis; olive genotypes olive leaf extract; phenolic profile; antioxidant activity; GGE biplot analysis; cluster analysis; olive genotypes
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Orak, H.H.; Karamać, M.; Amarowicz, R.; Orak, A.; Penkacik, K. Genotype-Related Differences in the Phenolic Compound Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves. Molecules 2019, 24, 1130.

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