Next Article in Journal
Enantiomeric Recognition and Separation by Chiral Nanoparticles
Previous Article in Journal
Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Wastewater Towards a Circular Economy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Short-Term Neonatal Oral Administration of Oleanolic Acid Protects against Fructose-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Skeletal Muscles of Suckling Rats
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061006

Evaluation of the Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Entada spiralis Stem Bark and Isolation of the Active Constituents

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang D.M., Malaysia
2
Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Products Discovery (AuRIns), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Bandar Puncak Alam, 42300 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor D.E., Malaysia
4
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
6
Halal Institute Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natália Martins and Gertjan Van Dijk
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Plant Compounds for Sustainable Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [903 KB, uploaded 13 March 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Digestive enzymes and free radical inhibitors are used to prevent complications resulting from diabetes. Entada spiralis (family Leguminosae), which is a well-known medicinal plant in herbal medicine due to its various traditional and medicinal applications, was studied. Crude extracts were successively obtained from the stem bark using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol as extracting solvents. The antioxidant activity of all the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene and 2,2′-azinobis(-3-ethylbenzothiazine-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, while digestive enzymes inhibitory activity was assessed using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory methods. Structure elucidation of pure compounds was achieved through different spectroscopic analysis methods. Fractionation and purification of the most active methanol extract resulted in the isolation of a ferulic ester namely; (e)-hexyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) acrylate (FEQ-2) together with five known phenolic constituents, identified as kaempferol (FEQ-3), 5,4′-dihydroxy-3,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone (FEQ-2), gallic acid (FEQ-5), (+)-catechin (FEQ-7) and (−)-epicatechin (FEQ-8). FEQ-5 exhibited the strongest antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities followed by FEQ-3 and FEQ-4. FEQ-2 also displayed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 13.79 ± 2.13 (DPPH) and 4.69 ± 1.25 (ABTS) µg/mL, respectively. All other compounds were found active either against free radicals or digestive enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Entada spiralis; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay; β-carotene assay; 2,2′-azinobis(-3-ethylbenzothiazine-6-sulfonic acid) assay; α-amylase; α-glucosidase; active principles Entada spiralis; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay; β-carotene assay; 2,2′-azinobis(-3-ethylbenzothiazine-6-sulfonic acid) assay; α-amylase; α-glucosidase; active principles
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Roheem, F.O.; Mat Soad, S.Z.; Ahmed, Q.U.; Ali Shah, S.A.; Latip, J.; Zakaria, Z.A. Evaluation of the Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Entada spiralis Stem Bark and Isolation of the Active Constituents. Molecules 2019, 24, 1006.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top