Next Article in Journal
Antiproliferative Aspect of Benzimidazole Derivatives’ Activity and Their Impact on NF-κB Expression
Next Article in Special Issue
Bone Mineral Affinity of Polyphosphodiesters
Previous Article in Journal
Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Cultivar Leaves: Differences across the Vegetative Stage and the Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy
 
 
Article

Aromatic vs. Aliphatic Hyperbranched Polyphosphoesters as Flame Retardants in Epoxy Resins

1
Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany
2
Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Germany
3
Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213901
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 23 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
The current trend for future flame retardants (FRs) goes to novel efficient halogen-free materials, due to the ban of several halogenated FRs. Among the most promising alternatives are phosphorus-based FRs, and of those, polymeric materials with complex shape have been recently reported. Herein, we present novel halogen-free aromatic and aliphatic hyperbranched polyphosphoesters (hbPPEs), which were synthesized by olefin metathesis polymerization and investigated them as a FR in epoxy resins. We compare their efficiency (aliphatic vs. aromatic) and further assess the differences between the monomeric compounds and the hbPPEs. The decomposition and vaporizing behavior of a compound is an important factor in its flame-retardant behavior, but also the interaction with the pyrolyzing matrix has a significant influence on the performance. Therefore, the challenge in designing a FR is to optimize the chemical structure and its decomposition pathway to the matrix, with regards to time and temperature. This behavior becomes obvious in this study, and explains the superior gas phase activity of the aliphatic FRs. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; metathesis; dendritic; cone calorimeter; fire test phosphorus; metathesis; dendritic; cone calorimeter; fire test
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Markwart, J.C.; Battig, A.; Velencoso, M.M.; Pollok, D.; Schartel, B.; Wurm, F.R. Aromatic vs. Aliphatic Hyperbranched Polyphosphoesters as Flame Retardants in Epoxy Resins. Molecules 2019, 24, 3901. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213901

AMA Style

Markwart JC, Battig A, Velencoso MM, Pollok D, Schartel B, Wurm FR. Aromatic vs. Aliphatic Hyperbranched Polyphosphoesters as Flame Retardants in Epoxy Resins. Molecules. 2019; 24(21):3901. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213901

Chicago/Turabian Style

Markwart, Jens C., Alexander Battig, Maria M. Velencoso, Dennis Pollok, Bernhard Schartel, and Frederik R. Wurm. 2019. "Aromatic vs. Aliphatic Hyperbranched Polyphosphoesters as Flame Retardants in Epoxy Resins" Molecules 24, no. 21: 3901. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213901

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop