Next Article in Journal
The Plastid Genome of Deschampsia cespitosa (Poaceae)
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemistry of Bridged Lactams: Recent Developments
Previous Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Molecules in 2018
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recent Advances in the Addition of Amide/Sulfonamide Bonds to Alkynes
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Well-Defined Pre-Catalysts in Amide and Ester Bond Activation

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108–6050, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michal Szostak
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 215;
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amide Bond Activation)
Over the past few decades, transition metal catalysis has witnessed a rapid and extensive development. The discovery and development of cross-coupling reactions is considered to be one of the most important advancements in the field of organic synthesis. The design and synthesis of well-defined and bench-stable transition metal pre-catalysts provide a significant improvement over the current catalytic systems in cross-coupling reactions, avoiding excess use of expensive ligands and harsh conditions for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and materials. Among various well-defined pre-catalysts, the use of Pd(II)-NHC, particularly, provided new avenues to expand the scope of cross-coupling reactions incorporating unreactive electrophiles, such as amides and esters. The strong σ-donation and tunable steric bulk of NHC ligands in Pd-NHC complexes facilitate oxidative addition and reductive elimination steps enabling the cross-coupling of broad range of amides and esters using facile conditions contrary to the arduous conditions employed under traditional catalytic conditions. Owing to the favorable catalytic activity of Pd-NHC catalysts, a tremendous progress was made in their utilization for cross-coupling reactions via selective acyl C–X (X=N, O) bond cleavage. This review highlights the recent advances made in the utilization of well-defined pre-catalysts for C–C and C–N bond forming reactions via selective amide and ester bond cleavage. View Full-Text
Keywords: pre-catalysts; palladium catalysis; amide bond activation; ester bond activation; cross-coupling pre-catalysts; palladium catalysis; amide bond activation; ester bond activation; cross-coupling
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vemula, S.R.; Chhoun, M.R.; Cook, G.R. Well-Defined Pre-Catalysts in Amide and Ester Bond Activation. Molecules 2019, 24, 215.

AMA Style

Vemula SR, Chhoun MR, Cook GR. Well-Defined Pre-Catalysts in Amide and Ester Bond Activation. Molecules. 2019; 24(2):215.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vemula, Sandeep R.; Chhoun, Michael R.; Cook, Gregory R. 2019. "Well-Defined Pre-Catalysts in Amide and Ester Bond Activation" Molecules 24, no. 2: 215.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop