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Open AccessArticle

Improved Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Anti-adipogenic Properties of Hydroponic Ginseng Fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 12010P

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Food Biotechnology Research Institute, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183359
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 16 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Ginseng Research)
Hydroponic ginseng (HPG) has been known to have various bio-functionalities, including an antioxidant effect. Recently, fermentation by lactic acid bacteria has been studied to enhance bio-functional activities in plants by biologically converting their chemical compounds. HPG roots and shoots were fermented with Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 12010P isolated from kimchi. The total phenolic compounds, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-adipogenic effects of these fermented samples were evaluated in comparison with non-fermented samples (control). During 24 h fermentation of HPG roots and shoots, the viable number of cells increased to 7.50 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the fermented HPG roots increased by 107.19% and 645.59%, respectively, compared to non-fermented HPG roots. The antioxidant activity of fermented HPG, as assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), β-carotene-linoleic, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, was also significantly enhanced. In an anti-inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, the nitric oxide content and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) decreased when treated with fermented samples. Simultaneously, lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was reduced when treated with fermented HPG. Fermentation by L. mesenteroides showed improved antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic HPG effects. These results show that fermented HPG has potential for applications in the functional food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-adipogenic effect; anti-inflammatory effect; antioxidative effect; hydroponic ginseng; fermentation; Panax ginseng anti-adipogenic effect; anti-inflammatory effect; antioxidative effect; hydroponic ginseng; fermentation; Panax ginseng
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, J.E.; Kim, K.-T.; Paik, H.-D. Improved Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Anti-adipogenic Properties of Hydroponic Ginseng Fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 12010P. Molecules 2019, 24, 3359.

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