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Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071519

Phytochemicals: Target-Based Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetic Retinopathy

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 3800, Pakistan
2
College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Hambakmoero, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-799, Korea
3
Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, Hambakmoe-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-799, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 23 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Diabetes)
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Abstract

Background: A variety of causative factors are involved in the initiation of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Current antidiabetic therapies are expensive and not easily accessible by the public. Furthermore, the use of multiple synthetic drugs leads to severe side effects, which worsen the diabetic patient’s condition. Medicinal plants and their derived phytochemicals are considered safe and effective treatment and their consumption can reduce the DR risk. In this article, we discuss a variety of medicinal plants, and their noteworthy bio-active constituents, that will be utilized as target based therapeutic strategies for DR. Methods: A broad-spectrum study was conducted using published English works in various electronic databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Results: Targeting the multiple pathological factors including ROS, AGEs formation, hexosamine flux, PARP, PKC, and MAPK activation through variety of bioactive constituents in medicinal plants, diabetes progression can be delayed with improved loss of vision. Conclusions: Data reveals that traditional herbs and their prominent bioactive components control and normalize pathological cellular factors involved in DR progression. Therefore, studies should be carried out to explore the protective retinopathy effects of medicinal plants using experimental animal and humans models. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; protein kinase C; advanced glycation end-products; phytochemicals; oxidative stress; mitogen-activated protein kinases; vascular endothelial growth factor; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; metalloproteinase-9; reactive oxygen species; aldose reductase diabetic retinopathy; protein kinase C; advanced glycation end-products; phytochemicals; oxidative stress; mitogen-activated protein kinases; vascular endothelial growth factor; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; metalloproteinase-9; reactive oxygen species; aldose reductase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Parveen, A.; Kim, J.H.; Oh, B.G.; Subedi, L.; Khan, Z.; Kim, S.Y. Phytochemicals: Target-Based Therapeutic Strategies for Diabetic Retinopathy. Molecules 2018, 23, 1519.

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