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Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB

Key Lab in Healthy Science and Technology, Division of Life Science, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
Open FIESTA Center, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 517;
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
PDF [3047 KB, uploaded 26 February 2018]


Numerous herbal-derived natural products are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Several studies have reported that aloin, the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity is not well understood. In this report, we found that aloin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nitric oxide production, and downregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Aloin inhibits the phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit by suppressing the upstream kinases p38 and Msk1, preventing LPS-induced p65 translocation to the nucleus. We have also shown that aloin inhibits LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that aloin effectively suppresses the inflammatory response, primarily through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; aloin; NF-κB; macrophages; apoptosis inflammation; aloin; NF-κB; macrophages; apoptosis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Luo, X.; Zhang, H.; Wei, X.; Shi, M.; Fan, P.; Xie, W.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, N. Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB. Molecules 2018, 23, 517.

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