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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010006

The Major Chromophore Arising from Glucose Degradation and Oxidative Stress Occurrence during Lens Proteins Glycation Induced by Glucose

1
Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
2
Instituto de Química de los Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
3
Laboratorio de Química Biológica, Facultad de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Modifications and Bioconjugation)
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Abstract

Glucose autoxidation has been proposed as a key reaction associated with deleterious effects induced by hyperglycemia in the eye lens. Little is known about chromophores generated during glucose autoxidation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in the generation of a major chromophore arising from glucose degradation (GDC) and its association with oxidative damage in lens proteins. Glucose (5 mM) was incubated with H2O2 (0.5–5 mM), Cu2+ (5–50 μM), glyoxal (0.5–5 mM) or methylglyoxal (0.5–5 mM) at pH 7.4, 5% O2, 37 °C, from 0 to 30 days. GDC concentration increased with incubation time, as well as when incubated in the presence of H2O2 and/or Cu2+, which were effective even at the lowest concentrations. Dicarbonylic compounds did not increase the levels of GDC during incubations. 1H, 13C and FT-IR spectra from the purified fraction containing the chromophore (detected by UV/vis spectroscopy) showed oxidation products of glucose, including gluconic acid. Lens proteins solutions (10 mg/mL) incubated with glucose (30 mM) presented increased levels of carboxymethyl-lysine and hydrogen peroxide that were associated with GDC increase. Our results suggest a possible use of GDC as a marker of autoxidative reactions occurring during lens proteins glycation induced by glucose. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; oxidative stress; cataract disease; eye lens proteins; protein glycation glucose; oxidative stress; cataract disease; eye lens proteins; protein glycation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ávila, F.; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G.; Silva, E. The Major Chromophore Arising from Glucose Degradation and Oxidative Stress Occurrence during Lens Proteins Glycation Induced by Glucose. Molecules 2018, 23, 6.

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