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Open AccessArticle

Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity

National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editor: Gregory Chatel
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020232
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration (X1), material-to-liquid ratio (X2), ultrasonic temperature (X3) and power (X4) for an optimal total phenol yield (Y1) and DPPH• antioxidant activity (Y2). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water (v:v) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What’s more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta-O-galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acer truncatum leaves; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; phenolics; antioxidant activity; UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Acer truncatum leaves; ultrasonic-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; phenolics; antioxidant activity; UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, L.; Yin, P.; Fan, H.; Xue, Q.; Li, K.; Li, X.; Sun, L.; Liu, Y. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity. Molecules 2017, 22, 232.

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