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Structural Analysis of Metabolites of Asiatic Acid and Its Analogue Madecassic Acid in Zebrafish Using LC/IT-MSn

Beijing Laboratory for Biomedical Detection Technology and Instrument, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John A. Beutler
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3001-3019;
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
PDF [1075 KB, uploaded 12 February 2015]


Although zebrafish has become a significant animal model for drug discovery and screening, drug metabolism in zebrafish remains largely unknown. Asiatic acid (AA) and madecassic acid (MA), two natural pentacyclic triterpenoids mainly obtained from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, have been found to possess many pharmacological effects. This study is to probe the metabolic capability of zebrafish via investigation of the drug metabolism of AA and MA in zebrafish, using a sensitive LC/IT-MSn method. In addition, the main fragmentation pathways of AA and MA were reported for the first time. Nineteen metabolites of AA and MA were firstly identified after zebrafish was exposed to the drug, which all were the phase I metabolites and mainly formed from hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, dihydroxylation and dehydrogenation, and dehydroxylation reaction. The results indicated that zebrafish possessed strong metabolic capacity, and the metabolites of AA and MA were formed via similar metabolic pathways and well matched with the known metabolic rules in vivo and in vitro, which supports the widely use of this system in drug metabolism research. This investigation would also contribute to the novel information on the structural elucidation, in vivo metabolites and metabolic mechanism of pentacyclic triterpenoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; metabolism; asiatic acid; madecassic acid; LC/IT-MSn zebrafish; metabolism; asiatic acid; madecassic acid; LC/IT-MSn

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Xia, B.; Bai, L.; Li, X.; Xiong, J.; Xu, P.; Xue, M. Structural Analysis of Metabolites of Asiatic Acid and Its Analogue Madecassic Acid in Zebrafish Using LC/IT-MSn. Molecules 2015, 20, 3001-3019.

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