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Pragmatic Hypotheses in the Evolution of Science

1
Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090, Brazil
2
Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(9), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090883
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
This paper introduces pragmatic hypotheses and relates this concept to the spiral of scientific evolution. Previous works determined a characterization of logically consistent statistical hypothesis tests and showed that the modal operators obtained from this test can be represented in the hexagon of oppositions. However, despite the importance of precise hypothesis in science, they cannot be accepted by logically consistent tests. Here, we show that this dilemma can be overcome by the use of pragmatic versions of precise hypotheses. These pragmatic versions allow a level of imprecision in the hypothesis that is small relative to other experimental conditions. The introduction of pragmatic hypotheses allows the evolution of scientific theories based on statistical hypothesis testing to be interpreted using the narratological structure of hexagonal spirals, as defined by Pierre Gallais. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypothesis tests; precise hypotheses; pragmatic hypotheses hypothesis tests; precise hypotheses; pragmatic hypotheses
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Esteves, L.G.; Izbicki, R.; Stern, J.M.; Stern, R.B. Pragmatic Hypotheses in the Evolution of Science. Entropy 2019, 21, 883.

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