Next Article in Journal
An Introduction to the Non-Equilibrium Steady States of Maximum Entropy Spike Trains
Previous Article in Journal
Quantifying the Variability in Resting-State Networks
Open AccessArticle

Pragmatic Hypotheses in the Evolution of Science

Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090, Brazil
Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(9), 883;
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
This paper introduces pragmatic hypotheses and relates this concept to the spiral of scientific evolution. Previous works determined a characterization of logically consistent statistical hypothesis tests and showed that the modal operators obtained from this test can be represented in the hexagon of oppositions. However, despite the importance of precise hypothesis in science, they cannot be accepted by logically consistent tests. Here, we show that this dilemma can be overcome by the use of pragmatic versions of precise hypotheses. These pragmatic versions allow a level of imprecision in the hypothesis that is small relative to other experimental conditions. The introduction of pragmatic hypotheses allows the evolution of scientific theories based on statistical hypothesis testing to be interpreted using the narratological structure of hexagonal spirals, as defined by Pierre Gallais. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypothesis tests; precise hypotheses; pragmatic hypotheses hypothesis tests; precise hypotheses; pragmatic hypotheses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Esteves, L.G.; Izbicki, R.; Stern, J.M.; Stern, R.B. Pragmatic Hypotheses in the Evolution of Science. Entropy 2019, 21, 883.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop