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Article

A New Physically Meaningful Threshold of Sample Entropy for Detecting Cardiovascular Diseases

1
The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Entropy 2019, 21(9), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090830
Received: 13 July 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 22 August 2019 / Published: 25 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Information Theory and Entropy in Cardiology)
Sample Entropy (SampEn) is a popular method for assessing the regularity of physiological signals. Prior to the entropy calculation, certain common parameters need to be initialized: Embedding dimension m, tolerance threshold r and time series length N. Nevertheless, the determination of these parameters is usually based on expert experience. Improper assignments of these parameters tend to bring invalid values, inconsistency and low statistical significance in entropy calculation. In this study, we proposed a new tolerance threshold with physical meaning ( r p ), which was based on the sampling resolution of physiological signals. Statistical significance, percentage of invalid entropy values and ROC curve were used to evaluate the proposed r p against the traditional threshold ( r t ). Normal sinus rhythm (NSR), congestive heart failure (CHF) as well as atrial fibrillation (AF) RR interval recordings from Physionet were used as the test data. The results demonstrated that the proposed r p had better stability than r t , hence more adaptive to detect cardiovascular diseases of CHF and AF. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrial fibrillation; cardiovascular time series; congestive heart failure; heart rate variability; sample entropy atrial fibrillation; cardiovascular time series; congestive heart failure; heart rate variability; sample entropy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiong, J.; Liang, X.; Zhu, T.; Zhao, L.; Li, J.; Liu, C. A New Physically Meaningful Threshold of Sample Entropy for Detecting Cardiovascular Diseases. Entropy 2019, 21, 830. https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090830

AMA Style

Xiong J, Liang X, Zhu T, Zhao L, Li J, Liu C. A New Physically Meaningful Threshold of Sample Entropy for Detecting Cardiovascular Diseases. Entropy. 2019; 21(9):830. https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090830

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xiong, Jinle, Xueyu Liang, Tingting Zhu, Lina Zhao, Jianqing Li, and Chengyu Liu. 2019. "A New Physically Meaningful Threshold of Sample Entropy for Detecting Cardiovascular Diseases" Entropy 21, no. 9: 830. https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090830

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