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Entropy 2019, 21(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020216

Unification of Epistemic and Ontic Concepts of Information, Probability, and Entropy, Using Cognizers-System Model

Department of Biology, Ehime University, Ehime Prefecture 790-8577, Japan
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract

Information and probability are common words used in scientific investigations. However, information and probability both involve epistemic (subjective) and ontic (objective) interpretations under the same terms, which causes controversy within the concept of entropy in physics and biology. There is another issue regarding the circularity between information (or data) and reality: The observation of reality produces phenomena (or events), whereas the reality is confirmed (or constituted) by phenomena. The ordinary concept of information presupposes reality as a source of information, whereas another type of information (known as it-from-bit) constitutes the reality from data (bits). In this paper, a monistic model, called the cognizers-system model (CS model), is employed to resolve these issues. In the CS model, observations (epistemic) and physical changes (ontic) are both unified as “cognition”, meaning a related state change. Information and probability, epistemic and ontic, are formalized and analyzed systematically using a common theoretical framework of the CS model or a related model. Based on the results, a perspective for resolving controversial issues of entropy originating from information and probability is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognition; cognizers system; information; probability; entropy; observer; observation; (un)certainty; relative frequency cognition; cognizers system; information; probability; entropy; observer; observation; (un)certainty; relative frequency
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Nakajima, T. Unification of Epistemic and Ontic Concepts of Information, Probability, and Entropy, Using Cognizers-System Model. Entropy 2019, 21, 216.

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