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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Phase Change Material (PCM) Configuration for PCM-Based Heat Sinks—An Experimental Study
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071629 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A small-scale phase change material (PCM)-based heat sink can regulate the temperature of electronics due to high latent-heat capacity. Three different heat sinks are examined to study the effects of PCM combination, arrangement of PCMs in multiple-PCM heat sink, PCM thickness, melting temperature
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A small-scale phase change material (PCM)-based heat sink can regulate the temperature of electronics due to high latent-heat capacity. Three different heat sinks are examined to study the effects of PCM combination, arrangement of PCMs in multiple-PCM heat sink, PCM thickness, melting temperature and intensity of heat source on the thermal behavior of heat sink. Results are obtained for the temperature distribution across the heat sink and the PCM melting profile. It is concluded that (i) PCM combination RT50–RT55 increases the thermal regulation period and also reduces the heat sink temperature at the end of the operation, (ii) the RT58–RT47 arrangement slightly reduces the maximum temperature as compared to RT47–RT58, (iii) As PCM thickness increases from 30 mm to 60 mm, the thermal-regulation-period increases by 50 min, (iv) As the PCM melting temperature increases, the thermal-regulation-period and the heat sink temperature increase and (v) The thermal-regulation-period decreases as the power rating increases from 1 to 2 W. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Aqueous Extract from the Leaves of Justicia tranquebariesis against Thioacetamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats
Antioxidants 2018, 7(7), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7070078 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg
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The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw/p.o.)-treated control. Group 3 was TAA (100 mg/kg bw/s.c.)-treated control. Groups 4 and 5 were orally administered with the leaf extract of J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) daily for 10 days with a subsequent administration of a single dose of TAA (100 mg/kg/s.c.). Blood and livers were collected and assayed for various antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, and GR). Treatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced liver TBARS and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in TAA-induced fibrosis rats. Concurrently, pretreatment with J. tranquebariensis significantly reduced the elevated liver markers (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, and TB) in the blood. In addition, J. tranquebariensis- and silymarin- administered rats demonstrated the restoration of normal liver histology and reduction in fibronectin and collagen deposition. Based on these findings, J. tranquebariensis has potent liver protective functions and can alleviate thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress, hepatic fibrosis and possible engross mechanisms connected to antioxidant potential. Full article
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Open AccessReview
From Incriminating Stegomyia fasciata to Releasing Wolbachia pipientis: Australian Research on the Dengue Virus Vector, Aedes aegypti, and Development of Novel Strategies for Its Surveillance and Control
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030071 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Globally, the dengue viruses (DENVs) infect approximately 300 million people annually. Australia has a history of epidemic dengue, with outbreaks in the early decades of the twentieth century responsible for tens of thousands of cases. Seminal experiments conducted by Australian scientists during these
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Globally, the dengue viruses (DENVs) infect approximately 300 million people annually. Australia has a history of epidemic dengue, with outbreaks in the early decades of the twentieth century responsible for tens of thousands of cases. Seminal experiments conducted by Australian scientists during these outbreaks were the first to incriminate Aedes aegypti as a major vector of dengue viruses. One hundred years later, Australian scientists are playing a lead role in the development of surveillance and suppression strategies that target this mosquito species. Surveillance of Ae. aegypti populations and their associated dengue risk was greatly improved by understanding the contribution of key premises, key containers, and cryptic larval habitats to mosquito productivity, and, more recently, the development of novel adult traps. In terms of mosquito control, targeted indoor residual pyrethroid spraying and community-based biological control utilizing predatory copepods can significantly reduce Ae. aegypti populations. The release of Ae. aegypti transinfected with the virus-blocking bacterium, Wolbachia, provides a promising strategy for limiting DENV transmission. These diverse strategies developed by Australian scientists have the potential to alleviate the burden of dengue in the future, whether it is at the local level or as part of a country-wide program. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Immunosenescence and Immunotherapy in Elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Time for a Biology-Driven Approach
Cancers 2018, 10(7), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10070211 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease, which mainly affects the elderly population. Unfortunately, the prognosis of patients aged >65 years is dismal, with 1-year overall survival approaching 10% with conventional therapies. The hypothesis of harnessing the immune system against cancer, including leukemia,
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease, which mainly affects the elderly population. Unfortunately, the prognosis of patients aged >65 years is dismal, with 1-year overall survival approaching 10% with conventional therapies. The hypothesis of harnessing the immune system against cancer, including leukemia, has been postulated for a long time, and several clinical attempts have been made in this field. In the last years, we increased our knowledge about the interplay between AML and immune cells, but no major improvement has been translated, up to now, from bench to bedside. However, the outstanding results coming from the modern immuno-oncology trials with new drugs have granted a new interest for immunotherapy in AML. Accordingly, the elderly population represents an ideal target, given the low percentage of patients eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplant. With that in mind, in the era of immunotherapy, we consider immunosenescence as the optimal background to start investigating a biology-driven approach to AML therapy in the elderly. By taking into account the physiological age-related changes of immune response, more personalized and tailored use of the new drugs and strategies harnessing the immune system against AML, has the potential to increase their efficacy and impact on clinical outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
OGC-to-W3C Services: A Wrapper-Based Solution for Geospatial Metadata Exchange
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070227 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
When trying to compose services that are developed according to different standards, interoperability issues arise that are often faced by developing ad-hoc solutions. A typical example is represented by the composition of W3C and OGC services, which were developed more or less concurrently
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When trying to compose services that are developed according to different standards, interoperability issues arise that are often faced by developing ad-hoc solutions. A typical example is represented by the composition of W3C and OGC services, which were developed more or less concurrently by independent organizations. In such a context, developing a wrapper that abstracts as much as possible the inner details and logic of a wrapped service well embraces the low-coupled nature of the general Service Oriented Computing paradigm. This paper focuses on the proper management of geospatial metadata into a W3C-based environment and is based on the development of a wrapper that exposes OGC functionality in a W3C-compliant way, thus overcoming the technical differences between the two types of services. To efficiently accomplish this task, a flexible, wrapper-based, and standard-compliant mechanism for metadata retrieval is proposed that avoids the use of third-party entities. The proposal exploits the scalable and adaptable nature of the WS-Metadata (Web Services Metadata) specification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Silico Docking and In Vitro Approaches towards BACE1 and Cholinesterases Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Flavanones
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071509 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, distinctively characterized by senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic loss, finally resulting in neuronal death. β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and cholinesterases have been identified as therapeutic targets for AD,
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, distinctively characterized by senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic loss, finally resulting in neuronal death. β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and cholinesterases have been identified as therapeutic targets for AD, and the discovery of their inhibitors is of critical importance for developing preventive strategies for AD. To discover natural multi-target compounds possessing BACE1, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory properties, major citrus flavanones including hesperetin, naringenin, and hesperidin were evaluated. In vitro anti-AD activities were performed via BACE1 and cholinesterases inhibition assays, as well as enzyme kinetic predictions. For the design of potential inhibitors of AD-related enzymes, molecular docking analysis was performed. Based on the biological evaluation, hesperidin demonstrated the best inhibitory properties toward BACE1, AChE, and BChE, with IC50 values of 10.02 ± 1.12, 22.80 ± 2.78, and 48.09 ± 0.74 µM, respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that all tested compounds were found to be noncompetitive inhibitors against BACE1 and cholineseterases. In addition, molecular docking studies of these compounds demonstrated negative binding energies for BACE1, AChE, and BChE, indicating high affinity and tight binding capacity for the target enzymes. The present study suggested that the selected citrus flavanones could act together as multiple inhibitors of BACE1, AChE, and BChE, indicating preventive and therapeutic potential against AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lake Surface Water Temperature Derived from 35 Years of AVHRR Sensor Data for European Lakes
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10070990 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Lake surface water temperature (LSWT) is an important parameter with which to assess aquatic ecosystems and to study the lake’s response to climate change. The AVHRR archive of the University of Bern offers great potential to derive consistent LSWT data suited for the
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Lake surface water temperature (LSWT) is an important parameter with which to assess aquatic ecosystems and to study the lake’s response to climate change. The AVHRR archive of the University of Bern offers great potential to derive consistent LSWT data suited for the study of climate change and lake dynamics. To derive such a dataset, challenges such as orbit drift correction, non-water pixel detection, and homogenization had to be solved. The result is a dataset covering over 3.5 decades of spatial LSWT data for 26 European lakes. The validation against in-situ temperature data at 19 locations showed an uncertainty between ±0.8 K and ±2.0 K (standard deviation), depending on locations of the lakes. The long-term robustness of the dataset was confirmed by comparing in-situ and satellite derived temperature trends, which showed no significant difference. The final trend analysis showed significant LSWT warming trends at all locations (0.2 K/decade to 0.8 K/decade). A gradient of increasing trends from south-west to north-east of Europe was revealed. The strong intra-annual variability of trends indicates that single seasonal trends do not well represent the response of a lake to climate change, e.g., autumn trends are dominant in the north of Europe, whereas winter trends are dominant in the south. Intra-lake variability of trends indicates that trends at single in-situ stations do not necessarily represent the lake’s response. The LSWT dataset generated for this study gives some new and interesting insights into the response of European lakes to climate change during the last 36 years (1981–2016). Full article
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