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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 8 (August 2013), Pages 15199-17237

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Displaying articles 1-106
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Open AccessReview Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17221-17237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817221
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting structures. It is initiated by bacteria growing as a biofilm at the gingival margin, and communication of the biofilms differs in health and disease. The bacterial composition of periodontitis-associated biofilms has been well documented
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Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting structures. It is initiated by bacteria growing as a biofilm at the gingival margin, and communication of the biofilms differs in health and disease. The bacterial composition of periodontitis-associated biofilms has been well documented and is under continual investigation. However, the roles of several host response and inflammation driven environmental stimuli on biofilm formation is not well understood. This review article addresses the effects of environmental factors such as pH, temperature, cytokines, hormones, and oxidative stress on periodontal biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Post-Transcriptional Controls by Ribonucleoprotein Complexes in the Acquisition of Drug Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17204-17220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817204
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acquisition of drug resistance leads to failure of anti-cancer treatments and therapies. Although several successive chemotherapies are available, along with efforts towards clinical applications of new anti-cancer drugs, it is generally realized that there is a long way to go to treat cancers.
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Acquisition of drug resistance leads to failure of anti-cancer treatments and therapies. Although several successive chemotherapies are available, along with efforts towards clinical applications of new anti-cancer drugs, it is generally realized that there is a long way to go to treat cancers. Resistance to anti-cancer drugs results from various factors, including genetic as well as epigenetic differences in tumors. Determining the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the acquisition of drug resistance may be a helpful approach for the development of new therapeutic strategies to overcome treatment failure. Several studies have shown that the acquisition of drug resistance is tightly regulated by post-transcriptional regulators such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which change the stability and translation of mRNAs encoding factors involved in cell survival, proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and drug metabolism. Here, we review our current understanding of ribonucleoprotein complexes, including RBPs and miRNAs, which play critical roles in the acquisition of drug resistance and have potential clinical implications for cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation by Ribonucleoprotein Complexes)
Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Studies of Schizonepetin Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17193-17203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817193
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay
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A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay in vitro. Compounds M2, M4, M5 and M34 showed higher inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus with the TC50 values being in micromole. Compounds M28, M33, and M35 showed higher inhibitory activity against influenza virus H3N2 with their TC50 values being 96.4, 71.0 and 75.4 μM, respectively. Preliminary biological activity evaluation indicated that the anti-H3N2 and anti-HSV-1 activities improved obviously through the introduction of halogen into the structure of schizonepetin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Preventive or Potential Therapeutic Value of Nutraceuticals against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Exposed Subjects and Frequent Fliers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17168-17192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817168
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Humans are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation deriving from outer space sources or activities related to medical care. Absorption of ionizing radiation doses over a prolonged period of time can result in oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction inducing several diseases, especially in ageing
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Humans are constantly exposed to ionizing radiation deriving from outer space sources or activities related to medical care. Absorption of ionizing radiation doses over a prolonged period of time can result in oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction inducing several diseases, especially in ageing subjects. In this report, we analyze the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly at low doses, in relation to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, and cardiovascular and retinal diseases. We discuss scientific data in support of protection strategies by safe antioxidant formulations that can provide preventive or potential therapeutic value in response to long-term diseases that may develop following exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
Open AccessReview Molecular Interactions in the Development of Brain Metastases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17157-17167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817157
Received: 23 June 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain metastases are a much-feared complication of cancer. The development of brain metastases requires a malignant cell to acquire characteristics that facilitate dissemination away from the primary site, entrance into the nervous system, and establishment in the brain. This review summarizes recent work
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Brain metastases are a much-feared complication of cancer. The development of brain metastases requires a malignant cell to acquire characteristics that facilitate dissemination away from the primary site, entrance into the nervous system, and establishment in the brain. This review summarizes recent work focused on the molecular derangements leading to brain metastases and outlines areas in need of greater understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Cucurbitacin E as Inducer of Cell Death and Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SAS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17147-17156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817147
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent
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Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 µM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Homoserine Lactones Influence the Reaction of Plants to Rhizobia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17122-17146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817122
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial quorum sensing molecules not only grant the communication within bacterial communities, but also influence eukaryotic hosts. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by pathogenic or beneficial bacteria were shown to induce diverse reactions in animals and plants. In plants, the reaction to AHLs
[...] Read more.
Bacterial quorum sensing molecules not only grant the communication within bacterial communities, but also influence eukaryotic hosts. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by pathogenic or beneficial bacteria were shown to induce diverse reactions in animals and plants. In plants, the reaction to AHLs depends on the length of the lipid side chain. Here we investigated the impact of two bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana, which usually enter a close symbiosis with plants from the Fabaceae (legumes) family and produce a long-chain AHL (Sinorhizobium meliloti) or a short-chain AHL (Rhizobium etli). We demonstrate that, similarly to the reaction to pure AHL molecules, the impact, which the inoculation with rhizosphere bacteria has on plants, depends on the type of the produced AHL. The inoculation with oxo-C14-HSL-producing S. meliloti strains enhanced plant resistance towards pathogenic bacteria, whereas the inoculation with an AttM lactonase-expressing S. meliloti strain did not. Inoculation with the oxo-C8-HSL-producing R. etli had no impact on the resistance, which is in agreement with our previous hypothesis. In addition, plants seem to influence the availability of AHLs in the rhizosphere. Taken together, this report provides new insights in the role of N-acyl-homoserine lactones in the inter-kingdom communication at the root surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quorum Sensing Research in Microbial Systems)
Open AccessReview NF90 in Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation and MicroRNA Biogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17111-17121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817111
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gene expression patterns are effectively regulated by turnover and translation regulatory (TTR) RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The TTR-RBPs control gene expression at posttranscriptional levels, such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA cytoplasmic export, turnover, storage, and translation. Double-stranded RNA binding proteins (DSRBPs) are known to regulate
[...] Read more.
Gene expression patterns are effectively regulated by turnover and translation regulatory (TTR) RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The TTR-RBPs control gene expression at posttranscriptional levels, such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA cytoplasmic export, turnover, storage, and translation. Double-stranded RNA binding proteins (DSRBPs) are known to regulate many processes of cellular metabolism, including transcriptional control, translational control, mRNA processing and localization. Nuclear factor 90 (NF90), one of the DSRBPs, is abundantly expressed in vertebrate tissue and participates in many aspects of RNA metabolism. NF90 was originally purified as a component of a DNA binding complex which binds to the antigen recognition response element 2 in the interleukin 2 promoter. Recent studies have provided us with interesting insights into its possible physiological roles in RNA metabolism, including transcription, degradation, and translation. In addition, it was shown that NF90 regulates microRNA expression. In this review, we try to focus on the function of NF90 in posttranscriptional gene regulation and microRNA biogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation by Ribonucleoprotein Complexes)
Open AccessReview Non-Coding RNAs and Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17085-17110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817085
Received: 5 July 2013 / Revised: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The discovery of the biological relevance of non-coding RNA (ncRNAs) molecules represents one of the most significant advances in contemporary molecular biology. Expression profiling of human tumors, based on the expression of miRNAs and other short or long ncRNAs, has identified signatures associated
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The discovery of the biological relevance of non-coding RNA (ncRNAs) molecules represents one of the most significant advances in contemporary molecular biology. Expression profiling of human tumors, based on the expression of miRNAs and other short or long ncRNAs, has identified signatures associated with diagnosis, staging, progression, prognosis, and response to treatment. In this review we will discuss the recent remarkable advancement in the understanding the biological functions of human ncRNAs in cancer, the mechanisms of expression and the therapeutic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Reduced Prolamin on Seed Storage Protein Composition and the Nutritional Quality of Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17073-17084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817073
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rice seed storage proteins accumulate in two types of protein body (PB-I and PB-II) that are nutrient sources for animals. PB-I is indigestible and negatively affects rice protein quality. To improve the nutritional value of rice seeds we are aiming to engineer the
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Rice seed storage proteins accumulate in two types of protein body (PB-I and PB-II) that are nutrient sources for animals. PB-I is indigestible and negatively affects rice protein quality. To improve the nutritional value of rice seeds we are aiming to engineer the composition and accumulation of endogenous seed storage proteins. In this study we generated transgenic rice plants in which 13 kD prolamin genes were suppressed by RNA interference (13 kD pro-RNAi). Analysis based on qRT-PCR confirmed that the targeted 13 kD prolamins were markedly suppressed, and were compensated for by an increase in other storage proteins including 10 kD prolamin, glutelins, and chaperone proteins. The storage protein profiles further revealed that the levels of 13 kD prolamins were significantly reduced, while that of the glutelin precursor was slightly increased and the remaining storage proteins did not change. Amino acid analysis showed that the reduction of 13 kD prolamins resulted in a 28% increase in the lysine content relative to the wild type, indicating that the 13 kD pro-RNAi rice seeds are more nutritious. Furthermore, a reduction in the levels of 13 kD prolamins resulted in abnormal formation of PB-I, which was small and had no lamellar structure. These results suggest that alteration of prolamins can contribute to improving the nutritional quality of rice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17055-17072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817055
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 20 July 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.
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Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle UVB-Stimulated TNFα Release from Human Melanocyte and Melanoma Cells Is Mediated by p38 MAPK
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17029-17054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817029
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation activates cell signaling pathways in melanocytes. As a result of altered signaling pathways and UV-induced cellular damage, melanocytes can undergo oncogenesis and develop into melanomas. In this study, we investigated the effect of UV-radiation on p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase),
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation activates cell signaling pathways in melanocytes. As a result of altered signaling pathways and UV-induced cellular damage, melanocytes can undergo oncogenesis and develop into melanomas. In this study, we investigated the effect of UV-radiation on p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), JNK and NFκB pathways to determine which plays a major role in stimulating TNFα secretion in human HEM (melanocytes) and MM96L (melanoma) cells. MM96L cells exhibited 3.5-fold higher p38 activity than HEM cells at 5 min following UVA + B radiation and 1.6-fold higher JNK activity at 15–30 min following UVB+A radiation, while NFκB was minimally activated in both cells. Irradiated HEM cells had the greatest fold of TNFα secretion (UVB: 109-fold, UVA + B: 103-fold & UVB+A: 130-fold) when co-exposed to IL1α. The p38 inhibitor, SB202190, inhibited TNFα release by 93% from UVB-irradiated HEM cells. In the UVB-irradiated MM96L cells, both SB202190 and sulfasalazine (NFκB inhibitor) inhibited TNFα release by 52%. Although, anisomycin was a p38 MAPK activator, it inhibited TNFα release in UV-irradiated cells. This suggests that UV-mediated TNFα release may occur via different p38 pathway intermediates compared to those stimulated by anisomycin. As such, further studies into the functional role p38 MAPK plays in regulating TNFα release in UV-irradiated melanocyte-derived cells are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase by Apocynin Attenuates Progression of Atherosclerosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17017-17028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140817017
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 26 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Of the multiple sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the blood vessel, NADPH oxidases are the primary source. Whereas several studies have implicated NADPH oxidases in the initiation of atherosclerosis, their roles in disease progression are incompletely understood. Our objective was to
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Of the multiple sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the blood vessel, NADPH oxidases are the primary source. Whereas several studies have implicated NADPH oxidases in the initiation of atherosclerosis, their roles in disease progression are incompletely understood. Our objective was to determine the potential clinical relevance of inhibiting NADPH oxidase in established atherosclerosis. Using a hypercholesteremic murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE−/−/LDLR−/− (AS) mice on normal chow diet), we first established a time-dependent relationship between superoxide levels and lesion size in AS mice. Next, we identified NADPH oxidase as the primary source of ROS in atherosclerotic lesions. Treatment of aortic segments from AS mice with apocynin, which interferes with NADPH oxidase activation in part by preventing translocation of the subunit p47phox, significantly reduced superoxide levels. Moreover, addition of apocynin to the drinking water of AS mice produced a decrease in lesion size as compared to untreated AS mice, with the effect most pronounced in the thoracoabdominal aorta but absent from the aortic arch. Granulocyte function in AS+apocynin mice was suppressed, confirming efficacy of apocynin treatment. We conclude that apocynin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice, potentially by its ability to inhibit generation of superoxide by NADPH oxidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessArticle Regulation of Huntingtin Gene Expression by miRNA-137, -214, -148a, and Their Respective isomiRs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 16999-17016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140816999
Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
With the advent of deep sequencing technology, a variety of miRNA length and sequence variants, termed isomiRNAs (isomiRs), have been discovered. However, the functional roles of these commonly detected isomiRs remain unknown. In this paper, we demonstrated that miRNAs regulate the expression of
[...] Read more.
With the advent of deep sequencing technology, a variety of miRNA length and sequence variants, termed isomiRNAs (isomiRs), have been discovered. However, the functional roles of these commonly detected isomiRs remain unknown. In this paper, we demonstrated that miRNAs regulate the expression of the HTT gene, whose mutation leads to Huntington’s disease (HD), a hereditary degenerative disorder. Specifically, we validated the interactions of canonical miRNAs, miR-137, miR-214, and miR-148a, with the HTT 3'UTR using a luciferase assay. Moreover, we applied synthetic miRNA mimics to examine whether a slight shifting of miRNA seed regions might alter the regulation of the HTT transcript. We also examined miR-137, miR-214, and miR-148a isomiRs and showed the activity of these isoforms on reporter constructs bearing appropriate sequences from the HTT 3'UTR. Hence, we demonstrated that certain 5'-end variants of miRNAs might be functional for the regulation of the same targets as canonical miRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Decreased Expression of Alpha-L-Fucosidase Gene FUCA1 in Human Colorectal Tumors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 16986-16998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms140816986
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In previous studies we described a decreased alpha-L-fucosidase activity in colorectal tumors, appearing as a prognostic factor of tumoral recurrence. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about tissue alpha-L-fucosidase in colorectal cancer by quantifying the expression of its encoding
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In previous studies we described a decreased alpha-L-fucosidase activity in colorectal tumors, appearing as a prognostic factor of tumoral recurrence. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about tissue alpha-L-fucosidase in colorectal cancer by quantifying the expression of its encoding gene FUCA1 in tumors and healthy mucosa. FUCA1 mRNA levels were measured by RT-qPCR in paired tumor and normal mucosa tissues from 31 patients. For the accuracy of the RT-qPCR results, five candidate reference genes were validated in those samples. In addition, activity and expression of alpha-L-fucosidase in selected matched tumor and healthy mucosa samples were analyzed. According to geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, RPLP0 and HPRT1 were the best reference genes in colorectal tissues. These genes were used for normalization of FUCA1 expression levels. A significant decrease of more than 60% in normalized FUCA1 expression was detected in tumors compared to normal mucosa (p = 0.002). Moreover, a gradual decrease in FUCA1 expression was observed with progression of disease from earlier to advanced stages. These findings were confirmed by Western blot analysis of alpha-L-fucosidase expression. Our results demonstrated diminished FUCA1 mRNA levels in tumors, suggesting that expression of tissue alpha-L-fucosidase could be regulated at transcriptional level in colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins)
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