E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013"

Quicklinks

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bing Yan (Website)

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
Fax: 86-0531-88380029
Interests: nanomedicine; nanotoxicity; cancer therapy; drug discovery; drug resistance; combinatorial chemistry; analytical sciences

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials will potentially play an important role in medicine. Production and applications of nanomaterials in industry are increasing. Furthermore, there are more than 1300 marketed nanomaterial-based consumer products. Therefore, how nanomaterials diagnose and treat diseases and how they perturb normal biological systems all become a top concern. In recent years, researchers are actively engaged in such investigations and discussions. At the same time, technologies and methods are developed to make more targeting and biocompatible nanoparticles for medicinal and imaging application. Since we started the special issue “Bioactive Nanoparticles”, responses and submissions from researchers have been enormous. As a result, two special issues “Bioactive Nanoparticles” and “Bioactive Nanoparticles 2012” have been published. This new special issue “Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013” will include research papers and review articles reflecting the most recent progresses and challenges in this dynamic research area.

Dr. Bing Yan
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF.


Keywords

  • nanoparticle protein interactions
  • nanoparticle cell interaction
  • cancer-targeting nanoparticle
  • nanoparticle for drug delivery
  • nano-imaging agent
  • toxicity of nanoparticle or nanomaterials

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Self/Co-Assembling Peptide, EAR8-II, as a Potential Carrier for a Hydrophobic Anticancer Drug Pirarubicin (THP)—Characterization and in-Vitro Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23315-23329; doi:10.3390/ijms141223315
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A short ionic-complementary peptide, EAR8-II, was employed to encapsulate the hydrophobic anticancer drug pirarubicin (THP). EAR8-II was designed to inherit advantages from two previously introduced peptides, AAP8 and EAK16-II, in their self/co-assembly. This peptide is short, simple, and inexpensive to synthesize, while [...] Read more.
A short ionic-complementary peptide, EAR8-II, was employed to encapsulate the hydrophobic anticancer drug pirarubicin (THP). EAR8-II was designed to inherit advantages from two previously introduced peptides, AAP8 and EAK16-II, in their self/co-assembly. This peptide is short, simple, and inexpensive to synthesize, while possessing a low critical assembly concentration (CAC). The choice of alanine (A) residues in the peptide sequence provides moderate hydrophobic interactions, causing a minimal degree of aggregation, compared with other more hydrophobic residues. EAR8-II is an ionic-complementary peptide, similar to EAK16-II, can self/co-assemble with hydrophobic compounds such as THP, and forms a stable fibular nanostructure in aqueous solution. Physiochemical properties and cellular activities of the EAR8-II and THP complexes were evaluated and show dependency on the peptide-to-drug ratio. The complex at the peptide-to-drug mass ratio of 5:1 provides a stable solution, uniform nanostructure, and highly effective anticancer activity against various cancer cell lines. This work forms the basis for detailed studies on EAR8-II and THP formulations in vitro and in vivo, for future development of peptide-based delivery systems for hydrophobic anticancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22529-22543; doi:10.3390/ijms141122529
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of nanocarbon blacks (NCBs) with different sizes to mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. MTT and fluorescence-based LIVE assays demonstrated that NCBs uptake caused a size and dose-dependent growth inhibition to the cells. Optical microscopy observations [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of nanocarbon blacks (NCBs) with different sizes to mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. MTT and fluorescence-based LIVE assays demonstrated that NCBs uptake caused a size and dose-dependent growth inhibition to the cells. Optical microscopy observations and 99mTc radionuclide labeling techniques were used to investigate the cellular uptake of NCBs with different sizes qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Results showed that the cellular uptake amounts of NCBs increased with their increasing size. Large quantities of internal NCBs induced oxidative stress and nuclear damage in cells; these effects may be the critical factors involved in the cytotoxicity of NCBs. The implications associated with these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Anti-Fasciolasis Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Trichoderma harzianum and Their Improvement of the Anti-Fasciolasis Drug Triclabendazole
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21887-21898; doi:10.3390/ijms141121887
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 21 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The [...] Read more.
Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The ability to uncover the structure and function of biosystems at the nanoscale, stimulates research leading to improvement in biology, biotechnology, medicine and healthcare. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Therefore, this work aimed to isolate fungal strains from Taif soil samples, which have the ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum, when challenged with silver nitrate solution, accumulated silver nanoparticles (AgNBs) on the surface of its cell wall in 72 h. These nanoparticles, dislodged by ultrasonication, showed an absorption peak at 420 nm in a UV-visible spectrum, corresponding to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron micrographs of dislodged nanoparticles in aqueous solution showed the production of reasonably monodisperse silver nanoparticles (average particle size: 4.66 nm) by the fungus. The percentage of non hatching eggs treated with the Triclabendazole drug was 69.67%, while this percentage increased to 89.67% in combination with drug and AgNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle Fast Disintegrating Quercetin-Loaded Drug Delivery Systems Fabricated Using Coaxial Electrospinning
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21647-21659; doi:10.3390/ijms141121647
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 26 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7) have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Nanoliposomes Entrapping Medium-Chain Fatty Acids and Vitamin C by Lyophilization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 19763-19773; doi:10.3390/ijms141019763
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complex nanoliposomes encapsulating both a hydrophilic drug vitamin C (vit C) and hydrophobic drug medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was prepared by combining double emulsion method with dynamic high pressure microfluidization. The complex nanoliposomes was further freeze-dried under −86 °C for 48 [...] Read more.
The complex nanoliposomes encapsulating both a hydrophilic drug vitamin C (vit C) and hydrophobic drug medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was prepared by combining double emulsion method with dynamic high pressure microfluidization. The complex nanoliposomes was further freeze-dried under −86 °C for 48 h with sucrose at the sucrose/lipids ratio of 2:1(w/w) in order to enhance its stability. The freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes under the suitable conditions exhibited high entrapment efficiency of MCFAs (44.26 ± 3.34)%, relatively high entrapment efficiency of vit C (62.25 ± 3.43)%, low average size diameter (110.4 ± 7.28) nm and good storage stability at 4 °C for 60 days with slight changes in mean particle diameter and drug entrapment efficiencies. The results of transmission electron microscopy of freeze-dried complex nanoliposomes also showed that the freeze-dried samples with sucrose were stable without great increase in their particle sizes and without destroying their spherical shape. The results indicated that sucrose presented well protection effects in MCFAs-vit C complex nanoliposomes, suggesting the possibility of further usage in commercial liposomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15755-15766; doi:10.3390/ijms140815755
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 7 July 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles composed of galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (Gal-CSO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared for hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific uptake, and the characteristics of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were evaluated. CSO/ATP nanoparticles were prepared as a control. The average diameter and zeta potential of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles composed of galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (Gal-CSO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared for hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific uptake, and the characteristics of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were evaluated. CSO/ATP nanoparticles were prepared as a control. The average diameter and zeta potential of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were 51.03 ± 3.26 nm and 30.50 ± 1.25 mV, respectively, suggesting suitable properties for a drug delivery system. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were examined by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated with HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that the cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on HepG2 cells was low. In the meantime, it was also found that the Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles could be uptaken by HepG2 cells, due to expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on their surfaces. The presented results indicate that the Gal-CSO nanoparticles might be very attractive to be used as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma cell targeting, thus warranting further in vivo or clinical investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14395-14407; doi:10.3390/ijms140714395
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anabaena sp. was used to examine the toxicity of exposure to a nano-TiO2 suspension, Zn2+ solution, and mixtures of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ suspensions. Typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency and maximal electron transport rate, [...] Read more.
Anabaena sp. was used to examine the toxicity of exposure to a nano-TiO2 suspension, Zn2+ solution, and mixtures of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ suspensions. Typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency and maximal electron transport rate, were measured by a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer. Nano-TiO2 particles exhibited no significant toxicity at concentrations lower than 10.0 mg/L. The 96 h concentration for the 50% maximal effect (EC50) of Zn2+ alone to Anabaena sp. was 0.38 ± 0.004 mg/L. The presence of nano-TiO2 at low concentrations (<1.0 mg/L) significantly enhanced the toxicity of Zn2+ and consequently reduced the EC50 value to 0.29 ± 0.003 mg/L. However, the toxicity of the Zn2+/TiO2 system decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration because of the substantial adsorption of Zn2+ by nano-TiO2. The toxicity curve of the Zn2+/TiO2 system as a function of incremental nano-TiO2 concentrations was parabolic. The toxicity significantly increased at the initial stage, reached its maximum, and then decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. Hydrodynamic sizes, concentration of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ loaded nano-TiO2 were the main parameters for synergistic toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle Non-Covalent Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle–Heparin Hybrid Systems: A New Approach to Bioactive Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13463-13481; doi:10.3390/ijms140713463
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heparin has been conjugated to Fe3O4, Co3O4, and NiO nanoparticles (NPs) through electrostatic interactions, producing colloidal suspensions of hybrid metal oxide heparin NPs that are stable in water. Negative zeta potentials and retention of [...] Read more.
Heparin has been conjugated to Fe3O4, Co3O4, and NiO nanoparticles (NPs) through electrostatic interactions, producing colloidal suspensions of hybrid metal oxide heparin NPs that are stable in water. Negative zeta potentials and retention of heparin’s ability to capture toluidine blue indicate that heparin’s negative charges are exposed on the surface of the coated NPs. IR results confirmed the formation of nanohybrids as did NMR experiments, which were also interpreted on the basis of toluidine blue tests. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the heparin coating does not modify the shape or dimension of the NPs. Dynamic light scattering and negative zeta potential measurements confirmed that heparin surface functionalisation is an effective strategy to prevent NP aggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Voltammetry as a Tool for Characterization of CdTe Quantum Dots
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13497-13510; doi:10.3390/ijms140713497
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical detection of quantum dots (QDs) has already been used in numerous applications. However, QDs have not been well characterized using voltammetry, with respect to their characterization and quantification. Therefore, the main aim was to characterize CdTe QDs using cyclic and differential [...] Read more.
Electrochemical detection of quantum dots (QDs) has already been used in numerous applications. However, QDs have not been well characterized using voltammetry, with respect to their characterization and quantification. Therefore, the main aim was to characterize CdTe QDs using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. The obtained peaks were identified and the detection limit (3 S/N) was estimated down to 100 fg/mL. Based on the convincing results, a new method for how to study stability and quantify the dots was suggested. Thus, the approach was further utilized for the testing of QDs stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Serum Based on Antibody Labeled Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Capture Probes and Graphene/CdTe Quantum Dot Bionanoconjugates as Signal Amplifiers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 10397-10411; doi:10.3390/ijms140510397
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O [...] Read more.
The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4) for enriching CA 19-9 were synthesized by immobilizing the CA 19-9’s first antibody (CA 19-9 Ab1) on magnetic nanoparticles (dextran-Fe3O4). Secondly, the signal probes (CA 19-9 Ab2/CdTe-G), which can emit an ECL signal, were formed by attaching the secondary CA 19-9 antibody (CA 19-9 Ab2) to the surface of the CdTe-G. Thirdly, the above two probes were used for conjugating with a serial of CA 19-9 concentrations. Graphene can immobilize dozens of CdTe QDs on their surface, which can emit stronger ECL intensity than CdTe QDs. Based on the amplified signal, ultrasensitive antigen detection can be realized. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal depended linearly on the logarithm of CA 19-9 concentration from 0.005 to 100 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 0.002 pg/mL. Finally, five samples of human serum were tested, and the results were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence assay (TRFA). The novel immunoassay provides a stable, specific and highly sensitive immunoassay protocol for tumor marker detection at very low levels, which can be applied in early diagnosis of tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 16732-16801; doi:10.3390/ijms140816732
Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 25 July 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There [...] Read more.
In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessReview Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9319-9337; doi:10.3390/ijms14059319
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse [...] Read more.
The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJMS Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijms@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJMS
Back to Top