Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 16706-16718; doi:10.3390/ijms140816706
Article

Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat

1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,* email
1 Department of Animal Science and Technology, Tianjin Agricultural University, 22 Jinjin Road, Xiqing District, Tianjin 300384, China 2 Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2013; in revised form: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
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Abstract: This study was conducted to compare: (1) protein chemical characteristics, including the amide I and II region, as well as protein secondary structure; and (2) carbohydrate internal structure and functional groups spectral intensities between the frost damaged wheat and normal wheat using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM). Fingerprint regions of specific interest in our study involved protein and carbohydrate functional group band assignments, including protein amide I and II (ca. 1774–1475 cm−1), structural carbohydrates (SCHO, ca. 1498–1176 cm−1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, ca. 1295–1176 cm−1), total carbohydrates (CHO, ca. 1191–906 cm−1) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCHO, ca. 954–809 cm−1). The results showed that frost did cause variations in spectral profiles in wheat grains. Compared with healthy wheat grains, frost damaged wheat had significantly lower (p < 0.05) spectral intensities in height and area ratios of amide I to II and almost all the spectral parameters of carbohydrate-related functional groups, including SCHO, CHO and NSCHO. Furthermore, the height ratio of protein amide I to the third peak of CHO and the area ratios of protein amide (amide I + II) to carbohydrate compounds (CHO and SCHO) were also changed (p < 0.05) in damaged wheat grains. It was concluded that the SR-FTIR microspectroscopic technique was able to examine inherent molecular structure features at an ultra-spatial resolution (10 × 10 μm) between different wheat grains samples. The structural characterization of wheat was influenced by climate conditions, such as frost damage, and these structural variations might be a major reason for the decreases in nutritive values, nutrients availability and milling and baking quality in wheat grains.
Keywords: synchrotron; frost damaged wheat; molecular structural make-up

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xin, H.; Zhang, X.; Yu, P. Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 16706-16718.

AMA Style

Xin H, Zhang X, Yu P. Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):16706-16718.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang. 2013. "Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 16706-16718.

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