Next Article in Journal
Endogenous Protease Nexin-1 Protects against Cerebral Ischemia
Next Article in Special Issue
The Characterisation of Pluripotent and Multipotent Stem Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Folding and Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Small Tim Proteins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correlation of Dual Colour Single Particle Trajectories for Improved Detection and Analysis of Interactions in Living Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 16706-16718; doi:10.3390/ijms140816706
Article

Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat

1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,*
Received: 13 June 2013; in revised form: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Micro-Spectroscopy in Biological Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1301 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: This study was conducted to compare: (1) protein chemical characteristics, including the amide I and II region, as well as protein secondary structure; and (2) carbohydrate internal structure and functional groups spectral intensities between the frost damaged wheat and normal wheat using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM). Fingerprint regions of specific interest in our study involved protein and carbohydrate functional group band assignments, including protein amide I and II (ca. 1774–1475 cm−1), structural carbohydrates (SCHO, ca. 1498–1176 cm−1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, ca. 1295–1176 cm−1), total carbohydrates (CHO, ca. 1191–906 cm−1) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCHO, ca. 954–809 cm−1). The results showed that frost did cause variations in spectral profiles in wheat grains. Compared with healthy wheat grains, frost damaged wheat had significantly lower (p < 0.05) spectral intensities in height and area ratios of amide I to II and almost all the spectral parameters of carbohydrate-related functional groups, including SCHO, CHO and NSCHO. Furthermore, the height ratio of protein amide I to the third peak of CHO and the area ratios of protein amide (amide I + II) to carbohydrate compounds (CHO and SCHO) were also changed (p < 0.05) in damaged wheat grains. It was concluded that the SR-FTIR microspectroscopic technique was able to examine inherent molecular structure features at an ultra-spatial resolution (10 × 10 μm) between different wheat grains samples. The structural characterization of wheat was influenced by climate conditions, such as frost damage, and these structural variations might be a major reason for the decreases in nutritive values, nutrients availability and milling and baking quality in wheat grains.
Keywords: synchrotron; frost damaged wheat; molecular structural make-up synchrotron; frost damaged wheat; molecular structural make-up
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Xin, H.; Zhang, X.; Yu, P. Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 16706-16718.

AMA Style

Xin H, Zhang X, Yu P. Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):16706-16718.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang. 2013. "Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 16706-16718.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert