Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17122-17146; doi:10.3390/ijms140817122
Article

Homoserine Lactones Influence the Reaction of Plants to Rhizobia

1 Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Centre for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen, Germany 2 Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Bioresources Project Group, Winchesterstrasse 2, D-35394 Giessen, Germany 3 Department Sensor Data and Information Fusion, Fraunhofer FKIE, 53343 Wachtberg, Germany 4 Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Centre for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen, Germany Present address: Biotechnology Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2013; in revised form: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quorum Sensing Research in Microbial Systems)
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Abstract: Bacterial quorum sensing molecules not only grant the communication within bacterial communities, but also influence eukaryotic hosts. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by pathogenic or beneficial bacteria were shown to induce diverse reactions in animals and plants. In plants, the reaction to AHLs depends on the length of the lipid side chain. Here we investigated the impact of two bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana, which usually enter a close symbiosis with plants from the Fabaceae (legumes) family and produce a long-chain AHL (Sinorhizobium meliloti) or a short-chain AHL (Rhizobium etli). We demonstrate that, similarly to the reaction to pure AHL molecules, the impact, which the inoculation with rhizosphere bacteria has on plants, depends on the type of the produced AHL. The inoculation with oxo-C14-HSL-producing S. meliloti strains enhanced plant resistance towards pathogenic bacteria, whereas the inoculation with an AttM lactonase-expressing S. meliloti strain did not. Inoculation with the oxo-C8-HSL-producing R. etli had no impact on the resistance, which is in agreement with our previous hypothesis. In addition, plants seem to influence the availability of AHLs in the rhizosphere. Taken together, this report provides new insights in the role of N-acyl-homoserine lactones in the inter-kingdom communication at the root surface.
Keywords: quorum sensing; induced resistance; plant-bacteria interaction; homoserine lactones

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zarkani, A.A.; Stein, E.; Röhrich, C.R.; Schikora, M.; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, E.; Degenkolb, T.; Vilcinskas, A.; Klug, G.; Kogel, K.-H.; Schikora, A. Homoserine Lactones Influence the Reaction of Plants to Rhizobia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17122-17146.

AMA Style

Zarkani AA, Stein E, Röhrich CR, Schikora M, Evguenieva-Hackenberg E, Degenkolb T, Vilcinskas A, Klug G, Kogel K-H, Schikora A. Homoserine Lactones Influence the Reaction of Plants to Rhizobia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):17122-17146.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zarkani, Azhar A.; Stein, Elke; Röhrich, Christian R.; Schikora, Marek; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena; Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Klug, Gabriele; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam. 2013. "Homoserine Lactones Influence the Reaction of Plants to Rhizobia." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 17122-17146.

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