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Folding and Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Small Tim Proteins
AbstractCorrect and timely folding is critical to the function of all proteins. The importance of this is illustrated in the biogenesis of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) “small Tim” proteins. Biogenesis of the small Tim proteins is regulated by dedicated systems or pathways, beginning with synthesis in the cytosol and ending with assembly of individually folded proteins into functional complexes in the mitochondrial IMS. The process is mostly centered on regulating the redox states of the conserved cysteine residues: oxidative folding is crucial for protein function in the IMS, but oxidized (disulfide bonded) proteins cannot be imported into mitochondria. How the redox-sensitive small Tim precursor proteins are maintained in a reduced, import-competent form in the cytosol is not well understood. Recent studies suggest that zinc and the cytosolic thioredoxin system play a role in the biogenesis of these proteins. In the IMS, the mitochondrial import and assembly (MIA) pathway catalyzes both import into the IMS and oxidative folding of the small Tim proteins. Finally, assembly of the small Tim complexes is a multistep process driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions; however, the chaperone function of the complex might require destabilization of these interactions to accommodate the substrate. Here, we review how folding of the small Tim proteins is regulated during their biogenesis, from maintenance of the unfolded precursors in the cytosol, to their import, oxidative folding, complex assembly and function in the IMS.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ceh-Pavia, E.; Spiller, M.P.; Lu, H. Folding and Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Small Tim Proteins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 16685-16705.View more citation formats
Ceh-Pavia E, Spiller MP, Lu H. Folding and Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Small Tim Proteins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):16685-16705.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ceh-Pavia, Efrain; Spiller, Michael P.; Lu, Hui. 2013. "Folding and Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Small Tim Proteins." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 16685-16705.