Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17221-17237; doi:10.3390/ijms140817221
Review

Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens

1,†,* email, 2email and 2,†email
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria)
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Abstract: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting structures. It is initiated by bacteria growing as a biofilm at the gingival margin, and communication of the biofilms differs in health and disease. The bacterial composition of periodontitis-associated biofilms has been well documented and is under continual investigation. However, the roles of several host response and inflammation driven environmental stimuli on biofilm formation is not well understood. This review article addresses the effects of environmental factors such as pH, temperature, cytokines, hormones, and oxidative stress on periodontal biofilm formation and bacterial virulence.
Keywords: periodontal pathogens; environmental stimuli; biofilm EPS; virulence factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pöllänen, M.T.; Paino, A.; Ihalin, R. Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17221-17237.

AMA Style

Pöllänen MT, Paino A, Ihalin R. Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):17221-17237.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pöllänen, Marja T.; Paino, Annamari; Ihalin, Riikka. 2013. "Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 17221-17237.


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