Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 17221-17237; doi:10.3390/ijms140817221
Review

Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens

1 Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland 2 Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria)
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Abstract: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting structures. It is initiated by bacteria growing as a biofilm at the gingival margin, and communication of the biofilms differs in health and disease. The bacterial composition of periodontitis-associated biofilms has been well documented and is under continual investigation. However, the roles of several host response and inflammation driven environmental stimuli on biofilm formation is not well understood. This review article addresses the effects of environmental factors such as pH, temperature, cytokines, hormones, and oxidative stress on periodontal biofilm formation and bacterial virulence.
Keywords: periodontal pathogens; environmental stimuli; biofilm EPS; virulence factors

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pöllänen, M.T.; Paino, A.; Ihalin, R. Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17221-17237.

AMA Style

Pöllänen MT, Paino A, Ihalin R. Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):17221-17237.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pöllänen, Marja T.; Paino, Annamari; Ihalin, Riikka. 2013. "Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 17221-17237.

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