Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Qiang-Sheng Wu
College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
Prof. Dr. Qing Yao
College of Horticulture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, China
Dr. Abeer Hashem
Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Anoop Kumar Srivastava
Indian Council of Agricultural Research - Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur 440033, India

Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 August 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Viewed by
15586

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ubiquitous nature of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi touches upon many new horizons related to the sustainable growing of both field and horticultural crops. The extensive network of extraradical hyphae outside the root systems of different host plants reach not only the immobilized nutrient reserves within the soil, but deposit highly recalcitrant carbon into the rhizosphere, thereby developing a microbial environment which is considered a prerequisite for sustainable crop production. These extraradical hyphae perform direct absorption of plant-assimilable nutrients, pump extra water to the host plant, and at the same time, maintain mycorrhizal proliferation for spore formation. Interestingly, the mycorrhizal hyphae release certain metabolites, such as glomalin, flavonoids, protons, amino acids, carboxylates and so on, forming a special microenvironment called the hyphosphere. These metabolites regulate the physical, chemical and biological dimensions of host plants and soil, and also mitigate environmental stresses, including the carbon-offset property of mycorrhizas. Regarding the roles that mycorrhizas play in developing a sustainable, healthy soil environment for improvised crop production, concerted efforts from the international research community are warranted to tackle these issues more precisely and meaningfully. We are seeking the contribution of original studies, reviews, and opinions for this Special Issue, in order to further streamline the agronomic and physiological roles of mycorrhizas with emphasis on the nature and properties of the mycorrhizosphere. Manuscripts relating to root-endophytic fungi are also welcomed. We are looking forward to receiving your valuable contributions.

Prof. Dr. Qiang-Sheng Wu
Prof. Dr. Qing Yao
Dr. Abeer Hashem
Dr. Anoop Kumar Srivastava
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • extraradical hyphae
  • glomalin
  • hyphosphere
  • mycorrhiza
  • nutrient
  • soil strucuture
  • stress
  • symbiosis

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.408 3.1 2011 19.8 Days 1800 CHF
Agronomy
agronomy
3.949 3.9 2011 18.7 Days 2000 CHF
Crops
crops
- - 2021 15.0 days * 1000 CHF
Horticulturae
horticulturae
2.923 1.8 2015 15.9 Days 1600 CHF
Journal of Fungi
jof
5.724 4.1 2015 13.8 Days 2000 CHF

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the first half of 2022.


Preprints is a platform dedicated to making early versions of research outputs permanently available and citable. MDPI journals allow posting on preprint servers such as Preprints.org prior to publication. For more details about reprints, please visit https://www.preprints.org.

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Design and Validation of qPCR-Specific Primers for Quantification of the Marketed Terfezia claveryi and Terfezia crassiverrucosa in Soil
J. Fungi 2022, 8(10), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101095 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Desert truffle crop is a pioneer in southeastern Spain, a region where native edible hypogeous fungi are adapted to the semiarid areas with low annual rainfall. Terfezia claveryi Chatin was the first species of desert truffle to be cultivated, and has been increasing [...] Read more.
Desert truffle crop is a pioneer in southeastern Spain, a region where native edible hypogeous fungi are adapted to the semiarid areas with low annual rainfall. Terfezia claveryi Chatin was the first species of desert truffle to be cultivated, and has been increasing in recent years as an alternative rainfed crop in the Iberian Peninsula. However, its behaviour in the field has yet not been investigated. For this purpose, specific primers were designed for the soil DNA quantification of both T. claveryi and Terfezia crassiverrucosa and a real-time qPCR protocol was developed, using the ITS rDNA region as a target. Moreover, a young desert truffle orchard was sampled for environmental validation. The results showed the highest efficiency for the TerclaF3/TerclaR1 primers pair, 89%, and the minimal fungal biomass that could be reliable detected was set at 4.23 µg mycelium/g soil. The spatial distribution of fungal biomass was heterogeneous, and there was not a direct relationship between the quantity of winter soil mycelium and the location/productivity of desert truffles. This protocol could be applied to tracking these species in soil and understand their mycelial dynamics in plantations and wild areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dry-Season Soil and Co-Cultivated Host Plants Enhanced Propagation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spores from Sand Dune Vegetation in Trap Culture
J. Fungi 2022, 8(10), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101061 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 705
Abstract
The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biofertilizer in agriculture is a sustainable approach to fertilization. The first step in the production of AMF biofertilizer is inoculation of mycotrophic plants with a composite of soil and native plant roots, containing potentially viable [...] Read more.
The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biofertilizer in agriculture is a sustainable approach to fertilization. The first step in the production of AMF biofertilizer is inoculation of mycotrophic plants with a composite of soil and native plant roots, containing potentially viable AMF spores from natural habitats, to a trap culture. A single host plant or a consortium of host plants can be used to propagate AMF spores. However, the difference in the comparative efficiency of mono- and co-cultivated host plants used for the production of AMF spores and the maintenance of original AMF community composition has not been well elucidated. Here, we prepared trap culture with nutrient-poor soil from coastal sand dune vegetation collected during the dry season when the AMF spore density and relative abundance of Glomeromycota ITS2 sequences were significantly higher (p = <0.05) than in the wet season. The AMF communities in the soil were mainly composed of Glomus spp. Maize (Zea mays L.) and/or Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.). Moench) were grown in trap cultures in the greenhouse. Our results demonstrated that co-cultivation of the host plants increased the production of AMF spores but, compared to mono-cultivation of host plants, did not better sustain the native AMF community compositions in the coastal sand dune soil. We propose that the co-cultivation of host plants in a trap culture broadens AMF-host plant compatibilities and thus sustains the symbiotic association of the natively diverse AMF. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that further research is needed to confirm whether the co-culturing of more than one host plant is as efficient a strategy as using a monoculture of a single host plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Immunomodulatory Molecular Mechanisms of Luffa cylindrica for Downy Mildews Resistance Induced by Growth-Promoting Endophytic Fungi
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070689 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Downy mildew (DM), caused by P. cubensis, is harmful to cucurbits including luffa, with increased shortcomings associated with its control through cultural practices, chemical fungicides, and resistant cultivars; there is a prompt need for an effective, eco-friendly, economical, and safe biocontrol approach. [...] Read more.
Downy mildew (DM), caused by P. cubensis, is harmful to cucurbits including luffa, with increased shortcomings associated with its control through cultural practices, chemical fungicides, and resistant cultivars; there is a prompt need for an effective, eco-friendly, economical, and safe biocontrol approach. Current research is therefore dealt with the biocontrol of luffa DM1 through the endophytic fungi (EF) consortium. Results revealed that T. harzianum (ThM9) and T. virens (TvA1) showed pathogen-dependent inducible metabolic production of squalene and gliotoxins by higher gene expression induction of SQS1/ERG9 (squalene synthase) and GliP (non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). Gene expression of lytic enzymes of EF was also induced with subsequently higher enzyme activities upon confrontation with P. cubensis. EF-inoculated luffa seeds showed efficient germination with enhanced growth potential and vigor of seedlings. EF-inoculated plants showed an increased level of growth-promoting hormone GA with higher gene expression of GA2OX8. EF-pre-inoculated seedlings were resistant to DM and showed an increased GSH content and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, POD). The level of MDA, H2O2, REL, and disease severity was reduced by EF. ACC, JA, ABA, and SA were overproduced along with higher gene expression of LOX, ERF, NCED2, and PAL. Expression of defense-marker genes (PPO, CAT2, SOD, APX, PER5, LOX, NBS-LRR, PSY, CAS, Ubi, MLP43) was also modulated in EF-inoculated infected plants. Current research supported the use of EF inoculation to effectively escalate the systemic immunity against DM corresponding to the significant promotion of induced systemic resistance (ISR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) responses through initiating the defense mechanism by SA, ABA, ET, and JA biosynthesis and signaling pathways in luffa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Synergism between Streptomyces viridosporus HH1 and Rhizophagus irregularis Effectively Induces Defense Responses to Fusarium Wilt of Pea and Improves Plant Growth and Yield
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070683 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Fusarium wilt is a detrimental disease of pea crop, resulting in severe damage and a reduction in its yield. Developing synergistically enhanced bioagents for disease management and growth promotion is pivotal for food safety, security, and sustainability. In this study, biocontrol potential of [...] Read more.
Fusarium wilt is a detrimental disease of pea crop, resulting in severe damage and a reduction in its yield. Developing synergistically enhanced bioagents for disease management and growth promotion is pivotal for food safety, security, and sustainability. In this study, biocontrol potential of treating pea plants with Streptomycesviridosporus HH1 and/or their colonization with Rhizophagusirregularis against infection with Fusarium wilt was investigated. Impacts on the expression profiles of defense-related genes, biochemical, and ultrastructural levels, as well as the growth and yield of pea plants in response to these treatments, were also investigated. Data obtained indicated the antifungal activity of S. viridosporus HH1 against F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi in vitro. Furthermore, the GC-MS analysis revealed production of different bioactive compounds by S. viridosporus HH1, including 2,3-butanediol, thioglycolic acid, and phthalic acid. The results from the greenhouse experiment exhibited a synergistic biocontrol activity, resulting in a 77% reduction in disease severity in pea plants treated with S. viridosporus HH1 and colonized with R. irregularis. In this regard, this dual treatment overexpressed the responsive factor JERF3 (5.6-fold) and the defense-related genes β-1,3-glucanase (8.2-fold) and the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (14.5-fold), enhanced the total phenolic content (99.5%), induced the antioxidant activity of peroxidase (64.3%) and polyphenol oxidase (31.6%) enzymes in pea plants, reduced the antioxidant stress, and improved their hypersensitivity at the ultrastructural level in response to the Fusarium wilt pathogen. Moreover, a synergistic growth-promoting effect was also recorded in pea plants in response to this dual treatment. In this regard, due to this dual treatment, elevated levels of photosynthetic pigments and improved growth parameters were observed in pea leaves, leading to an increment in the yield (113%). In addition, application of S. viridosporus enhanced the colonization levels with R. irregularis in pea roots. Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that treating pea plants with S. viridosporus HH1 and colonization with R. irregularis have synergistic biocontrol activity and growth-promoting effects on pea plants against Fusarium wilt. Despite its eco-safety and effectiveness, a field evaluation of this treatment before a use recommendation is quite necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Induced Plant Resistance against Fusarium Wilt in Jasmonate Biosynthesis Defective Mutant and Wild Type of Tomato
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050422 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can form mutual symbiotic associations with most terrestrial plants and improve the resistance of host plants against pathogens. However, the bioprotection provided by AM fungi can depend on the host–fungus combinations. In this study, we unraveled the effects of [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can form mutual symbiotic associations with most terrestrial plants and improve the resistance of host plants against pathogens. However, the bioprotection provided by AM fungi can depend on the host–fungus combinations. In this study, we unraveled the effects of pre-inoculation with AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on plant resistance against the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant tomato, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses8 (spr8) and the wild type Castlemart (CM). Results showed that R. irregularis colonization in CM plants significantly decreased the disease index, which was not observed in spr8 plants, suggesting that the disease protection of AM fungi was a plant-genotype-specific trait. Inoculation with R. irregularis significantly increased the shoot dry weight of CM plants when infected with F. oxysporum, with increased plant P content and net photosynthetic rate. Induced expression of the JA synthesis genes, including allene oxide cyclase gene (AOC) and lipoxygenase D gene (LOXD), and increased activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were recorded in mycorrhizal CM plants infected with F. oxysporum, but not in spr8 plants. Thus, mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) to fungal pathogen in tomato was highly relevant to the JA signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Potential Uses of Scallop Shell Powder as a Substrate for the Cultivation of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8040333 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Scallop shells are currently a major form of waste generated in the Chinese fishing industry. However, they have the potential to be used as important industrial products. This study was conducted to assess the utility of scallop shell powder (SSP) supplementation in improving [...] Read more.
Scallop shells are currently a major form of waste generated in the Chinese fishing industry. However, they have the potential to be used as important industrial products. This study was conducted to assess the utility of scallop shell powder (SSP) supplementation in improving the growth of king oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii) grown on sawdust and sugarcane bagasse substrates. The outcomes of interest included mycelial growth, yield, biological efficiency, fruiting body traits, nutrient supply, and the mineral composition of P. eryngii. Supplementation with SSP accelerated the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. The yield of fruiting bodies (399.5 g/bag) and the biological efficiency (84.6%) were 14% higher after supplementation of the substrate with 2% SSP compared with those of mushrooms grown on substrates not supplemented with SSP (349.8 g/bag and 74.0%, respectively). Moreover, the crude protein and fiber contents of the fruiting bodies significantly improved after growth with SSP. Furthermore, supplementation with 2% SSP increased the calcium (Ca) content of the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii by 64% (to 67.2 ± 15.7 mg kg−1) compared with that of mushrooms grown on a control substrate (41.0 mg kg−1). This study revealed that P. eryngii can efficiently use the Ca provided by raw SSP, generating higher Ca contents in their fruiting bodies. Our results demonstrate that the supplementation of substrates with SSP can be useful for enhancing both the yield and nutritional content of P. eryngii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Morel Production Associated with Soil Nitrogen-Fixing and Nitrifying Microorganisms
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030299 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
True morels (Morchella, Pezizales) cultivated in soil are subject to complex influences from soil microbial communities. To explore the characteristics of soil microbial communities on morel cultivation, and evaluate whether these microbes are related to morel production, we collected 23 [...] Read more.
True morels (Morchella, Pezizales) cultivated in soil are subject to complex influences from soil microbial communities. To explore the characteristics of soil microbial communities on morel cultivation, and evaluate whether these microbes are related to morel production, we collected 23 soil samples from four counties in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, China. Based on ITS and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, the alpha diversity analysis indicated that the biodiversity of morel cultivation soil showed a downward trend compared with the bare soil. The results also showed that there were no significant differences in soil microbial communities between OC (bare soil) and OO (after one-year suspension of sowing). This means that, after about one year of stopping sowing, the component and structure of soil that once cultivated morel would be restored. In co-occurrence networks, some noteworthy bacterial microbes involved in nitrogen fixation and nitrification have been identified in soils with high morel yields, such as Arthrobacter, Bradyhizobium, Devosia, Pseudarthrobacter, Pseudolabrys, and Nitrospira. In contrast, in soils with low or no morel yield, some pathogenic fungi accounted for a high proportion, including Gibberella, Microidium, Penicillium, Sarocladium, Streptomyces, and Trichoderma. This study provided valuable information for the isolation and culturing of some beneficial microbes for morel cultivation in further study and, potentially, to harness the power of the microbiome to improve morel production and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Fungi Activate Leaf Antioxidant Defense System of Lane Late Navel Orange
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030282 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungi collectively symbiose well with plants and, thus, stimulate plant growth; however, it is not clear whether field inoculation of the fungi enhances the resistance potential of plants, particularly in citrus. In the present study, we inoculated [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungi collectively symbiose well with plants and, thus, stimulate plant growth; however, it is not clear whether field inoculation of the fungi enhances the resistance potential of plants, particularly in citrus. In the present study, we inoculated AM fungi (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Diversispora spurca, and D. versiformis) and endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica) on an eight-year-old lane late navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb) trees grafted on Poncirus trifoliata in a field, and we analyzed the response of the leaf antioxidant defense system. Approximately 2 years after inoculation, the root fungal colonization rate and soil hyphal length significantly increased. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the activity of leaf antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as reduced ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. As a result, fungi-inoculated plants maintained lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals and lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation (according to malondialdehyde level) in leaves than uninoculated plants. Among them, inoculation of D. spurca and A. scrobiculata showed relatively higher effects in enhancing the antioxidant defense system than the other fungi. Furthermore, inoculation of D. spurca induced expressions of CsFe-SOD, CsMn-SOD, CsPOD, CsCAT1, and CsPRR7; inoculation of A. scrobiculata and D. versiformis induced expressions of CsCAT1; CsCAT1 and CsPOD were also induced by inoculation of P. indica. All four inoculations almost upregulated expressions of CsFAD6. AM fungi had superior effects than endophytic fungi (e.g., P. indica). According to our findings, inoculation with beneficial fungi, specifically mycorrhizal fungus D. spurca, activated the antioxidant defense system of field citrus trees, thus, having potentially superior resistance in inoculated plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ascophyllum nodosum Extract and Mycorrhizal Colonization Synergistically Trigger Immune Responses in Pea Plants against Rhizoctonia Root Rot, and Enhance Plant Growth and Productivity
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030268 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Rhizoctonia root rot is one of the most destructive diseases affecting pea crops, resulting in up to 75% loss. In this study, the biocontrol activity of seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) extract at 1, 2, and 3% and/or mycorrhization of pea roots was [...] Read more.
Rhizoctonia root rot is one of the most destructive diseases affecting pea crops, resulting in up to 75% loss. In this study, the biocontrol activity of seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) extract at 1, 2, and 3% and/or mycorrhization of pea roots was investigated against Rhizoctonia root rot under greenhouse conditions. In addition, their effects on the transcriptional, physiological, ultrastructural, and growth status of pea plants were also studied. The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization of pea roots and the application of the seaweed extract at 3% synergistically overexpressed the responsive factor (JERF3) recording 18.2-fold, and the defense-related genes peroxidase (23.2-fold) and chitinase II (31.8-fold). In addition, this treatment improved the activity of the antioxidant enzymes POD and PPO, increased the phenolic content in pea roots, and triggered multiple hypersensitivity reactions at the ultrastructural level of the cell, leading to a 73.1% reduction in disease severity. Moreover, a synergistic growth-promoting effect on pea plants was also observed. The photosynthetic pigments in pea leaves were enhanced in response to this dual treatment, which significantly improved their yield (24 g/plant). The inducing effect of mycorrhizal colonization on plant resistance and growth has been extensively studied. However, developing improved and synergistically acting biological agents for plant disease control and growth promotion as alternatives to the chemical fungicides is crucial for safety and food security. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the mycorrhizal colonization of pea roots and soaking their seeds in the A. nodosum extract at 3% have a promising and improved biocontrol activity against R. solani, and a growth-promoting effect on pea plants. However, field applications should be evaluated prior to any use recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Comprehensive Effects of Rhizophagus intraradices and P on Root System Architecture and P Transportation in Citrus limon L.
Agriculture 2022, 12(3), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12030317 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphorus (P) collectively influence the root system architecture (RSA), but whether the combination of the two affects RSA, particularly lateral root formation, is unknown. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects [...] Read more.
Both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphorus (P) collectively influence the root system architecture (RSA), but whether the combination of the two affects RSA, particularly lateral root formation, is unknown. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices) on the RSA of lemon (Citrus limon L.) seedlings under 0 (P0) and 50 mg/kg (P50) P levels. Moreover, P and carbohydrate content; acid phosphatase activity; and the expression of P transporter genes (PTs), phosphatase genes (PAPs), and lateral-root-related genes; were determined. Our results show that root mycorrhizal colonization and mycorrhizal dependency of lemon plants are significantly higher under P0 than under P50 conditions. AMF significantly promoted the plant growth performance of lemon, irrespective of substrate P levels. The RSA parameters of AMF plants, including total root length, projected area, surface area, average diameter, volume, and second- and third-order lateral root numbers, were distinctly increased under the two P levels compared to those of non-AMF plants. Mycorrhizal treatment also induced higher carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) and P contents, along with a higher activity of root acid phosphatase. The expression of P-related genes, including ClPAP1, ClPT1, ClPT3, ClPT5, and ClPT7, as well as the expression of lateral-root-related genes (ClKRP6, ClPSK6, and ClRSI-1), was dramatically upregulated by AMF inoculation, irrespective of substrate P levels. Principal component analysis showed that root P and carbohydrate contents, as well as the expression of ClKRP6 and ClPSK6, were positively correlated with RSA traits and lateral root development. Our study demonstrates that mycorrhizas accelerate the P acquisition and carbohydrate accumulation of lemon plants by upregulating the expression of lateral-root-related genes, thereby positively improving the RSA. Furthermore, AMF had a greater impact on the RSA of lemon than substrate P levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mechanisms in Growth-Promoting of Cucumber by the Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum Strain ND35
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020180 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Endophytic fungi are effective in plant growth and development by secreting various kinds of plant hormones and nutrients. However, the cellular and molecular interactions between the endophytic fungi and plant growth-promoting have remained less explored. The present study was designed to explore the [...] Read more.
Endophytic fungi are effective in plant growth and development by secreting various kinds of plant hormones and nutrients. However, the cellular and molecular interactions between the endophytic fungi and plant growth-promoting have remained less explored. The present study was designed to explore the effects of the infection and colonization events of Chaetomium globosum strain ND35 on cucumber growth and the expression pattern of some metabolically important genes in development of the cucumber radicle. The results demonstrated that strain ND35 can infect and colonize the outer layers (cortical cells) of cucumber root and form a symbiotic structure with the host cell, similar to a periarbuscular membrane and establish chemical communication with the plant. Through transcriptome analysis, we found the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) caused by strain ND35 were mainly enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction and photosynthesis. Correspondingly, the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA), zeatin (ZT), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) in ND35-colonized seedlings were generally higher than those of non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the infection and colonization events of C. globosum strain ND35 increased cucumber growth through complex regulation of plant hormones biosynthesis and metabolism. Furthermore, although the endophytic fungus strain ND35 produced IAA, GA, ZT, and ergosterol in the fermentation broth, and there are enabled to promote growth of cucumber, it is uncertain whether there are ND35-derived microbial hormones in plants. This study of the interaction between cucumber and strain ND35 contributes to a better understanding of the plant-endophytic fungi interactions, and may help to develop new strategies for crop production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Dominated the Root and Rhizosphere Microbial Communities of Two Willow Cultivars Grown for Six-Years in a Mixed-Contaminated Environment
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020145 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
There is a growing interest in plant microbiome’s engineering to optimize desired functions such as improved phytoremediation. This study is aimed at examining the microbial communities inhabiting the roots and rhizospheres of two Salix miyabeana cultivars that had been grown in a short-rotation [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in plant microbiome’s engineering to optimize desired functions such as improved phytoremediation. This study is aimed at examining the microbial communities inhabiting the roots and rhizospheres of two Salix miyabeana cultivars that had been grown in a short-rotation intensive culture (SRIC) system for six years in a soil contaminated with the discharge from a petrochemical factory. DNA was extracted from roots and rhizospheric soils, and fungal ITS and bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA regions were amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Cultivars ‘SX61’ and ‘SX64’ were found to harbor a similar diversity of fungal, bacterial, and archaeal amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). As expected, a greater microbial diversity was found in the rhizosphere biotope than in the roots of both cultivars, except for cultivar ‘SX64’, where a similar fungal diversity was observed in both biotopes. However, we found that microbial community structures were cultivar- and biotope-specific. Although the implication of some identified taxa for plant adaptability and biomass production capacity remains to be explored, this study provides valuable and useful information regarding microbes that could potentially favor the implantation and phytoremediation efficiency of Salix miyabeana in mixed contamination sites in similar climatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop