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Article

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Fungi Activate Leaf Antioxidant Defense System of Lane Late Navel Orange

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College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
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Yichang Citrus Science Institute, Yichang 443005, China
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Department of Horticulture, City Operations, Park and Road Services, Edmonton, AB T6W 1A3, Canada
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Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gary A. Strobel
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030282
Received: 15 January 2022 / Revised: 18 February 2022 / Accepted: 25 February 2022 / Published: 10 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Mycorrhizal Fungi Mediated Sustainable Crop Production)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungi collectively symbiose well with plants and, thus, stimulate plant growth; however, it is not clear whether field inoculation of the fungi enhances the resistance potential of plants, particularly in citrus. In the present study, we inoculated AM fungi (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Diversispora spurca, and D. versiformis) and endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica) on an eight-year-old lane late navel orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb) trees grafted on Poncirus trifoliata in a field, and we analyzed the response of the leaf antioxidant defense system. Approximately 2 years after inoculation, the root fungal colonization rate and soil hyphal length significantly increased. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the activity of leaf antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as reduced ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. As a result, fungi-inoculated plants maintained lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals and lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation (according to malondialdehyde level) in leaves than uninoculated plants. Among them, inoculation of D. spurca and A. scrobiculata showed relatively higher effects in enhancing the antioxidant defense system than the other fungi. Furthermore, inoculation of D. spurca induced expressions of CsFe-SOD, CsMn-SOD, CsPOD, CsCAT1, and CsPRR7; inoculation of A. scrobiculata and D. versiformis induced expressions of CsCAT1; CsCAT1 and CsPOD were also induced by inoculation of P. indica. All four inoculations almost upregulated expressions of CsFAD6. AM fungi had superior effects than endophytic fungi (e.g., P. indica). According to our findings, inoculation with beneficial fungi, specifically mycorrhizal fungus D. spurca, activated the antioxidant defense system of field citrus trees, thus, having potentially superior resistance in inoculated plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; citrus; endophytic fungi; mycorrhiza; oxidative stress antioxidant enzymes; citrus; endophytic fungi; mycorrhiza; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Q.-S.; Xie, Y.-C.; Rahman, M.M.; Hashem, A.; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Wu, Q.-S. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Fungi Activate Leaf Antioxidant Defense System of Lane Late Navel Orange. J. Fungi 2022, 8, 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030282

AMA Style

Li Q-S, Xie Y-C, Rahman MM, Hashem A, Abd_Allah EF, Wu Q-S. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Fungi Activate Leaf Antioxidant Defense System of Lane Late Navel Orange. Journal of Fungi. 2022; 8(3):282. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030282

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Qiu-Shuang, Ya-Chao Xie, Mohammed Mahabubur Rahman, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, and Qiang-Sheng Wu. 2022. "Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Fungi Activate Leaf Antioxidant Defense System of Lane Late Navel Orange" Journal of Fungi 8, no. 3: 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030282

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