Topic Editors

Dr. Joaquín Calatayud
Exercise Intervention for Health Research Group (EXINH-RG), Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Dr. Rubén López-Bueno
Department of Physical Medicine and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain

Exercise and Chronic Disease

Abstract submission deadline
30 April 2023
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2023
Viewed by
16749

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Topic ‘Exercise and Chronic Disease’ is open for submissions. It is well established that among all the different strategies aimed at improving overall health, exercise is by far the most cost-effective. Exercise brings a plethora of physiological changes that improve general health status, reducing all-cause mortality. The positive effects of exercise can also be observed in patients with chronic disease. Exercise has been proved as an effective “medicine” for the prevention and treatment of multiple chronic diseases (musculoskeletal, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous system diseases, cancer, etc.). For this Topic, we encourage researchers to submit high-quality observational, experimental, and review studies that provide evidence about the benefits of exercise in chronic disease. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of exercise interventions, longitudinal cohort studies, or systematic reviews with meta-analyses are specially welcomed. Furthermore, it is of particular interest for us to receive articles trying to develop robust designs that improve the existing literature and that are committed to either dose–response analyses or causal inference examining in depth to what extent physical activity and exercise have a causal effect on preventing or treating chronic disease and improving health.

Dr. Joaquín Calatayud
Dr. Rubén López-Bueno
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • exercise
  • resistance training
  • cardiorespiratory training
  • health
  • occupational health
  • clinical population
  • chronic disease
  • physical function
  • quality of life

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biology
biology
5.168 2.8 2012 16.7 Days 2000 CHF Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
4.614 4.5 2004 22.5 Days 2500 CHF Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
4.964 4.4 2012 20.6 Days 2400 CHF Submit

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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Article
Long-Term Aerobic Training Improves Mitochondrial and Antioxidant Function in the Liver of Wistar Rats Preventing Hepatic Age-Related Function Decline
Biology 2022, 11(12), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11121750 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Most studies on the effects of physical exercise have focused on its influence on muscle tissue, forgetting its interference in liver function. Ageing leads to the progressive impairment of hepatic functions. Several biochemical and bioenergetics parameters were determined to test the impact of [...] Read more.
Most studies on the effects of physical exercise have focused on its influence on muscle tissue, forgetting its interference in liver function. Ageing leads to the progressive impairment of hepatic functions. Several biochemical and bioenergetics parameters were determined to test the impact of a lifelong aerobic training program in the hepatic age-related and the development of an adaptative response. Liver samples were collected from 28 male Wistar rats (4-week-old, 159.4 ± 11.9 g at the beginning of the protocol), randomly distributed into two groups: non-exercised or exercised and submitted to a treadmill exercise program (60 min/day, 5 days/week, at 70% of maximal running speed), for 24 (n = 9) or 54 weeks (n = 10). A maximal running speed test was performed to determine the training speed. Antioxidant enzyme activity, cellular redox status, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and respiratory activity were performed in liver samples. Lifelong exercise decreased the age-associated decline in mitochondrial dysfunction, increasing the respiratory rate in state 2 (mitochondrial respiration stimulated by the substrate in the absence of added ADP) (p = 0.03) and citrate synthase enzymatic activity (p = 0.007). Complex II (p < 0.0001) and IV (p < 0.001) showed a decrease in enzymatic activity. Ageing-related oxidative stress was also attenuated by physical exercise, as showed by the increase in first-line defense antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (p = 0.07) and catalase (p = 0.03)), decreased lipid peroxidation levels (p = 0.864 for total fraction, p = 0,27 for mitochondrial fraction) and higher glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (p = 0.02). According to our results, the regular practice of exercise can prevent the liver’s mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of antioxidant system efficacy that may arise from ageing, highlighting the benefit of lifelong aerobic exercise in preventing age-related hepatic impairment and associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Systematic Review
High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on Biological and Body Composition Variables in Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 6937; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11236937 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 214
Abstract
In order to assess the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on biological and body composition variables in patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSKD), a systematic search on PubMed (Medline), CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus was conducted. Standardized mean differences (SMD) [...] Read more.
In order to assess the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on biological and body composition variables in patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSKD), a systematic search on PubMed (Medline), CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus was conducted. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled in a meta-analysis using the random-effects model. The effectiveness of HIIT on waist circumference, muscle mass, resting heart rate, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, body weight, and body fat were determined. GRADE, risk of bias 2, and PEDro scales were employed. HIIT compared to no intervention, minimal intervention, or usual care did not show significant results in its favor on any of the variables studied, except for the resting heart rate when compared with no intervention (SMD = −0.33; 95% CI: −0.63, −0.04; heterogeneity Q value: 0.14; p = 0.93; I2 = 0%). In addition, HIIT also does not seem to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training. Based on the results, it seems that HIIT has almost no significant effects on biological and body composition variables, except for resting heart rate, in patients with MSKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Physical and Quality of Life Changes in Elderly Patients after Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer—A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214711 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background—The incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing among elderly people, where postoperative complications are frequent. Methods—We evaluated postoperative physical and quality of life changes in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. A prospective cohort study was performed in 31 colorectal cancer [...] Read more.
Background—The incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing among elderly people, where postoperative complications are frequent. Methods—We evaluated postoperative physical and quality of life changes in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. A prospective cohort study was performed in 31 colorectal cancer patients ≥60 years who were scheduled for laparoscopic surgery due to colorectal cancer. Outcomes were measured one month preoperative (T1), three days postoperative (T2) and one month postoperative (T3). Results—The largest early postoperative (from T1 to T2) declines were observed for isometric knee extension strength (33.1%), 30 s Chair Stand Test (27.9%) and handgrip strength (16.9%). Significant reductions in quality of life measured with the QLQ-C30 summary score and the EQ 5D index score were found between T1–T3 and T1–T2, respectively. Conclusions—A decline in isometric knee extension strength, 30 s Chair Stand Test, handgrip strength and quality of life is evident in elderly patients in the days following laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Preoperative values are recovered one month after surgery for all the outcomes, except for isometric knee extension, which should receive especial attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Article
Minimal Dose of Resistance Exercise Required to Induce Immediate Hypotension Effect in Older Adults with Hypertension: Randomized Cross-Over Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114218 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
To determine the optimal exercise volume to generate a hypotension response after the execution of a single strength exercise in elderly subjects with hypertension (HT), a randomized crossover design was performed. A total of 19 elderly subjects with HT performed one control session [...] Read more.
To determine the optimal exercise volume to generate a hypotension response after the execution of a single strength exercise in elderly subjects with hypertension (HT), a randomized crossover design was performed. A total of 19 elderly subjects with HT performed one control session and three experimental sessions of resistance training with different volumes in a randomized order: three, six, and nine sets of 20 repetitions maximum (RM) of a single elbow flexion exercise with elastic bands. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean heart rate (MHR) were tested at the beginning and immediately afterwards, at 30 and 60 min, and at 4, 5, and 6 h after the resistance exercise. The results show that the volumes of six and nine sets of 20 RM obtained statistically significant differences in the SBP at 30 and 60 min post-exercise (p < 0.05); in the DBP at 30 min after exercise (p < 0.05); and in the MHR immediately after exercise at 30 and 60 min (p < 0.05), compared to a control session. A single resistance exercise with a minimum volume of six sets of 20 RM generated an acute post-exercise antihypertensive response that was maintained for 60 min in elderly people with controlled HT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Exercise in Improving Physical Function of Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912739 - 05 Oct 2022
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Rehabilitation is a crucial part of recovery for stroke survivors, and numerous studies have examined various exercises and treatments of stroke. In addition, it is very important for patients to choose the timing of rehabilitation and what kind of rehabilitation they will proceed [...] Read more.
Rehabilitation is a crucial part of recovery for stroke survivors, and numerous studies have examined various exercises and treatments of stroke. In addition, it is very important for patients to choose the timing of rehabilitation and what kind of rehabilitation they will proceed with. The purpose of the current study is to examine research investigating the effects of rehabilitation exercise programs in recovery of physical function in patients with stroke, based on aspects of their physical function, physical strength, and daily activities, and systematically examine their effects. Therefore, through systematic review, we have investigated the effects of interventions in rehabilitation exercise programs for recovery of physical function in patients with stroke. We collected relevant publications through the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and Google scholar. Twenty-one articles were ultimately selected for the analysis. We classified the rehabilitation programs and identified the trends of treatment for stroke survivors. Our review indicated that task-oriented therapy is still dominant, but various types of combined rehabilitations have been attempted. In addition, it was identified that physical and active rehabilitation were required rather than unconditional rest, even at an early stage. Home-based treatment was used for rapid recovery and adaptation to daily life during the mid-term period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Gentle Touch Therapy, Pain Relief and Neuroplasticity at Baseline in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Randomized, Multicenter Trial with Six-Month Follow-Up
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(16), 4898; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164898 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is considered a stress-related disorder characterized mainly by chronic widespread pain. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but cumulative evidence points at dysfunctional transmitter systems and inflammatory biomarkers that may underlie the major symptoms of the condition. This study aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is considered a stress-related disorder characterized mainly by chronic widespread pain. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but cumulative evidence points at dysfunctional transmitter systems and inflammatory biomarkers that may underlie the major symptoms of the condition. This study aimed to evaluate pain scores (primary outcome), quality of life, inflammatory biomarkers and neurotransmitter systems in women with FM (secondary outcomes) subjected to gentle touch therapy (GTT) or placebo. Methods: A total of 64 female patients with FM were randomly assigned to two groups, namely GTT (n = 32) or Placebo (n = 32). Clinical assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention with six-month follow-up. We measured serum catecholamines (dopamine), indolamines and intermediary metabolites (serotonin or 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)), as well as tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is a cofactor for the synthesis of neurotransmitters and inflammatory biomarkers in women with FM. A group of healthy individuals with no intervention (control group) was used to compare biochemical measurements. Intervention effects were analyzed using repeated measures (RM) two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test and mixed ANCOVA model with intention to treat. Results: Compared to placebo, the GTT group presented lower pain scores and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels without altering the quality of life of women with FM. Changes in BDNF had a mediating role in pain. Higher baseline serum BDNF and 5-HIAA or those with a history of anxiety disorder showed a higher reduction in pain scores across time. However, women with higher serum dopamine levels at baseline showed a lower effect of the intervention across the observation period revealed by an ANCOVA mixed model. Conclusions: In conclusion, lower pain scores were observed in the GTT group compared to the placebo group without altering the quality of life in women with FM. Reductions in BDNF levels could be a mechanism of FM pain status improvement. In this sense, the present study encourages the use of these GTT techniques as an integrative and complementary treatment of FM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis Have Lower Peak Exercise Load Capacity and Exercise Volume Compared with Unaffected Peers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610285 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Background: Sweating and increased skin temperature caused by exercise can reduce physical activity and the willingness to exercise in adolescents with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to investigate the exercise load capacity of adolescents with atopic dermatitis and analyzed their exercise behavior [...] Read more.
Background: Sweating and increased skin temperature caused by exercise can reduce physical activity and the willingness to exercise in adolescents with atopic dermatitis. This study was conducted to investigate the exercise load capacity of adolescents with atopic dermatitis and analyzed their exercise behavior and motivation. Methods: Adolescents with and without atopic dermatitis were assigned to the atopic dermatitis group and control group (n = 27 each). Both groups completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test and questionnaires to assess their exercise capacity, weekly exercise volume, exercise motivation, and self-efficacy, respectively. Results: The ratio of measured forced vital capacity to the predicted forced vital capacity and the peak oxygen consumption of the atopic dermatitis group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores of the atopic dermatitis group were significantly lower than those of the control group. As for the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 2, the scores for the introjected and identified regulations of the atopic dermatitis group were significantly lower than those of the control group. Regarding the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, the scheduling efficacy and total scores of the atopic dermatitis group were significantly lower than those of the control group. Conclusions: Adolescents with atopic dermatitis had lower peak exercise capacity and lower weekly exercise volume. Furthermore, they lacked the negative feelings toward inactivity and the self-confidence to plan regular exercise independently. The results of this study suggest that adolescents with atopic dermatitis should be encouraged to engage in regular indoor exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Article
The Effect of Endurance Training on Pulmonary V˙O2 Kinetics in Solid Organs Transplanted Recipients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159097 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Background: We investigated the effects of single (SL-ET) and double leg (DL-ET) high-intensity interval training on O2 deficit (O2Def) and mean response time (MRT) during square-wave moderate-intensity exercise (DL-MOD), and on the amplitude of V˙O2p slow component [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated the effects of single (SL-ET) and double leg (DL-ET) high-intensity interval training on O2 deficit (O2Def) and mean response time (MRT) during square-wave moderate-intensity exercise (DL-MOD), and on the amplitude of V˙O2p slow component (SCamp), during heavy intensity exercise (DL-HVY), on 33 patients (heart transplant = 13, kidney transplanted = 11 and liver transplanted = 9). Methods: Patients performed DL incremental step exercise to exhaustion, two DL-MOD tests, and a DL-HVY trial before and after 24 sessions of SL-ET (n = 17) or DL-ET (n = 16). Results: After SL-ET, O2Def, MRT and SCamp decreased by 16.4% ± 13.7 (p = 0.008), by 15.6% ± 13.7 (p = 0.004) and by 35% ± 31 (p = 0.002), respectively. After DL-ET, they dropped by 24.9% ± 16.2 (p < 0.0001), by 25.9% ± 13.6 (p < 0.0001) and by 38% ± 52 (p = 0.0003), respectively. The magnitude of improvement of O2Def, MRT, and SCamp was not significantly different between SL-ET and DL-ET after training. Conclusions: We conclude that SL-ET is as effective as DL-ET if we aim to improve V˙O2p kinetics in transplanted patients and suggest that the slower, V˙O2p kinetics is mainly caused by the impairment of peripherals exchanges likely due to the immunosuppressive medications and disuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Comparison of Wuqinxi Qigong with Stretching on Single- and Dual-Task Gait, Motor Symptoms and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Randomized Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138042 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Wuqinxi Qigong vs. stretching on single- and dual-task gait, motor symptoms, and quality of life in people with mild and moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD). This single-blind, randomized control trial included 40 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Wuqinxi Qigong vs. stretching on single- and dual-task gait, motor symptoms, and quality of life in people with mild and moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD). This single-blind, randomized control trial included 40 participants with idiopathic PD who were randomized into the Wuqinxi Qigong (WQ) group or stretching group. Participants completed 12 weeks (two sessions/week) of intervention. The primary outcomes were gait parameters when performing single-task (comfortable pace) and dual-task (obstacle crossing, serial-3 subtraction and backward digit span) walking, including gait speed, stride length, and double support percentage. The secondary outcomes were ratings from the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), results of the timed-up-and-go test (TUGT), results of the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (MiniBESTest), and responses from the 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). All measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The WQ group demonstrated increased gait speed (p = 0.000) during the single task, and increased stride length (p = 0.001, p = 0.021) during the single-task and serial-3 subtraction task. Double support percentage significantly decreased (p = 0.004) in the WQ group during the obstacle crossing task, and also decreased (p = 0.045) in the stretching group during the single-task. TUGT (p = 0.005), MiniBESTest (p = 0.023) and PDQ-39 (p = 0.043) in the WQ group significantly improved, and both groups showed significant improvement in MDS-UPDRS after intervention. Wuqinxi Qigong is an effective method to improve single- and dual-task gait. While both exercises improve motor symptoms, Wuqinxi Qigong results in better mobility, balance and quality of life compared to stretching alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Effects of a Long-Term Monitored Exercise Program on Aerobic Fitness in a Small Group of Children with Cystic Fibrosis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137923 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a monitored exercise program on aerobic fitness in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Six children (2f/4m) with ages ranging from 6 to 14 years (11.3 ± 3.3 years.) and a [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a monitored exercise program on aerobic fitness in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Six children (2f/4m) with ages ranging from 6 to 14 years (11.3 ± 3.3 years.) and a mean ppFEV1 102.5 ± 13.5% pred. participated in the partially monitored 12-month exercise program. VO2peak and Wpeak were used as parameters of aerobic fitness. Incremental Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Tests (CPETs) were performed before the program began (T1), after 6 months (T3) of monitoring, and after a further 6 months (T4) without monitoring. Habitual physical activity (HPA) was assessed with accelerometry. Results: The values of VO2peak and Wpeak improved slightly from T1 to T3 (p > 0.05), without a further increase after monitoring was stopped (T4). However, the VO2peak and Wpeak values were higher after monitoring was stopped compared to at T1. The exercise program with and without monitoring (p > 0.05) had no or only a slight effect on the FEV1 values, steps/day, and the intensity of HPA. Conclusions: Monitoring seems to facilitate the achievement of beneficial effects on physical fitness in CF children. For that reason, continuous individual exercise monitoring programs that involve close contact with an exercise therapist should be provided to maintain long-term motivation and participation in physical activities and sport activities during leisure time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Systematic Review
Effect of Physical Activity on Depression in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116849 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, and approximately 50% of PD patients suffer from depression. We aim to determine the effects of physical activity on depression in PD patients and to provide scientific evidence-based exercise prescriptions for PD [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, and approximately 50% of PD patients suffer from depression. We aim to determine the effects of physical activity on depression in PD patients and to provide scientific evidence-based exercise prescriptions for PD patients. A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo until February 2022 for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies published in English. The primary outcome was a score on a depression scale. A total of 14 RCTs involving 516 patients with PD were included in this study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that physical activity had a moderate and significant improvement in depression in PD patients (SMD = −0.60; 95% CI = −0.79 to −0.41; p < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis indicated that resistance exercise for 60–90 min more than 4 times per week for up to 12 weeks had a significant effect on PD patients who have had the disease for more than 5 years. Meta-regression showed that intervention type, intervention time, intervention frequency, intervention period, age, and disease duration were not sources of heterogeneity. Physical activity may reduce depression in PD patients. However, other larger sample sizes and high-quality studies are needed to validate these effects in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Review
Impact of Backpacks on Ergonomics: Biomechanical and Physiological Effects: A Narrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116737 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
(1) Background: the effects of load carriage packs on human gait biomechanics, physiology and metabolism depend on the weight carried, the design of the pack and its interaction with the user. (2) Methods: An extensive search in the PubMed database was performed to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the effects of load carriage packs on human gait biomechanics, physiology and metabolism depend on the weight carried, the design of the pack and its interaction with the user. (2) Methods: An extensive search in the PubMed database was performed to find all the relevant articles using the following keywords: backpack, rucksack, backpack ergonomy and sports backpack; 60 articles were included. (3) Results and significance: Double pack (DP) and T-pack (TP) designs are recommended solutions for school children, compared with backpacks (BP). For soldiers and hikers, a backpack remains the best compromise. A hip belt is recommended for BPs as well as for the back of DPs. Shorter and stiffer shoulder straps combined with a higher and tighter load placement on the back provide the best combination in terms of balance, muscle activation and energy expenditure. It is, therefore, possible to determine guidelines for designing the optimal load carriage system, depending on the application. (4) Conclusions: based on the available evidence, DP and TP are advantageous in terms of posture. DP is better than conventional BPs in terms of balance and muscle activation, but has the disadvantage of limited visibility, thermal sensation and obstructed ventilation. In general, it is desirable not to exceed 40% of body mass (BM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time of Suburban Toddlers Aged 12–36 Months
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116707 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Low levels of physical activity may predispose children to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases in later life. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) quantitatively describe the levels of habitual physical activity in a contemporary sample of suburban [...] Read more.
Low levels of physical activity may predispose children to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases in later life. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) quantitatively describe the levels of habitual physical activity in a contemporary sample of suburban children aged 12 to 36 months; (2) assess for gender differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior; (3) examine the specific effects of ethnicity, gender and overweight status on the objectively measured physical activity; and (4) quantify the tracking of physical activity in a subset of children over 1 year. During year one, 142 participants wore the GT3X Actigraph for 3 days. At a 1-year follow-up, a subset of 25 participants wore the Actigraph for 7 consecutive days. GLM and t-tests as appropriate were carried out to assess the influence of gender on the physical activity level. Spearman rank correlations, percentage agreement and kappa statistics assessed the tracking of physical activity. The results showed no significant gender differences in any anthropometric measurements, sedentary behavior or MVPA (p > 0.05). There were also no significant gender, ethnicity or overweight interaction for sedentary behavior, time spent in light PA and time spent in MVPA (p > 0.05). For tracking, there was a moderate strength of agreement for MVPA. Considering the disproportionate effects of obesity in minority groups, culturally appropriate interventions targeting the reduction in sedentary behavior are urgently required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
Article
Exercise and Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Adult Female Smokers: A Pilot Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116647 - 29 May 2022
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Background: Although Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes (RNC) are suggested to improve smoking cessation and cardiometabolic health in relation to cancer risk, the effectiveness of exercise training with RNC on smoking cessation and cardiometabolic health is unknown. Methods: Female smokers (N = 27) were randomized [...] Read more.
Background: Although Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes (RNC) are suggested to improve smoking cessation and cardiometabolic health in relation to cancer risk, the effectiveness of exercise training with RNC on smoking cessation and cardiometabolic health is unknown. Methods: Female smokers (N = 27) were randomized to: (1) usual nicotine cigarettes (i.e., control), (2) RNC or (3) RNC plus exercise treatment for 12 weeks. Smoking withdrawal symptoms (e.g., Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale) and cardiometabolic health (e.g., weight, VO2max, resting respiratory exchange ratio (RER), glucose, HOMA-IR) were examined before and after treatment. Results: Treatments had no differential effect on weight (p = 0.80; partial η2 = 0.29), VO2max (p = 0.20, partial η2 = 0.18), or total cholesterol/HDL ratios (p = 0.59, partial η2 = 0.06). However, RNC + Exercise tended to maintain RER (i.e., fat oxidation; p = 0.10, partial η2 = 0.10) as well as insulin resistance (p = 0.13, partial η2 = 0.25) and cortisol compared (p = 0.06, partial η2 = 0.30) with control and RNC. Increased VO2max was also associated with lower nicotine dependence scores (r = −0.50, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In this pilot study, improved fitness was associated with lower nicotine dependence. Additional work is warranted to examine the effects of exercise in smokers as a tool to improving smoking cessation and lower disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Relationship between Exercise Intensity and IL-6 Increase during an 80 km Long-Distance Running Race
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116368 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Background: IL-6 plasma concentration (IL-6PC) reflects the systemic inflammation related to exercise intensity level. This study aims to describe the IL-6PC kinetics during a long-distance running race. IL-6PC was measured in 20 male runners before (0 km), at each refreshment point (at [...] Read more.
Background: IL-6 plasma concentration (IL-6PC) reflects the systemic inflammation related to exercise intensity level. This study aims to describe the IL-6PC kinetics during a long-distance running race. IL-6PC was measured in 20 male runners before (0 km), at each refreshment point (at 21 and 53 km, i.e., k21 and k53, respectively) and at the end of an 80 km long-distance run (k80). Methods: IL-6PC variations (absolute and relative values in each of the three sections (S)) were calculated over S1 (0_k21), S2 (k21_k53) and S3 (k53_k80) and compared with the exercise intensity (duration*race speed) within each section. Results: The mean IL-6PC increased during the run: 2.1 ± 0.6 ng.L−1 at 0 km, 21.0 ± 11.3 ng.L−1 at k21, 38.9 ± 13.0 ng.L−1 at k53 and 49.8 ± 11.9 ng.L−1 at k80. Exercise intensity increased between S1 (24.2 ± 0.5) and S2 (51.9 ± 3.2) (p = 0.04) but not between S2 and S3 (67.4 ± 4.5) (p = 0.69). IL-6PC variation was associated with exercise intensity within S1 (p = 0.03) and S2 (p = 2 × 10−3) and showed at least a trend within S3 (p = 0.06). Conclusions: IL-6PC increases that occur during the early stages of a long-distance run are associated with the running intensity, and then IL-6PC remain stable after the reduction in intensity related to the decrease in running speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
The Role of Physical Activity Status in the Relationship between Obesity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) in Urban South African Teachers: The SABPA Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106348 - 23 May 2022
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Abstract
Globally, the prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity are on the rise, which may increase carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. This study assessed the association between physical activity (PA), obesity, and CIMT. A cross-sectional study design was used, [...] Read more.
Globally, the prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity are on the rise, which may increase carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. This study assessed the association between physical activity (PA), obesity, and CIMT. A cross-sectional study design was used, including a sub-sample (n = 216) of teachers who participated in the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SAPBA) study. Measurements included the following: physical activity status (measured with ActiHeart devices over 7 consecutive days), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), CIMT (measured by SonoSite Micromax ultrasound), blood pressure (BP), fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), and cholesterol and glucose levels. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. One-third of the teachers were physically inactive (33%) and had low-grade inflammation CRP ≥ 3 mg/L (41%). Males were more sedentary and had higher BP and CIMT (p < 0.05). Independent of age and sex, WC or central obesity was 2.63 times more likely (p = 0.02) to contribute to atherosclerosis, especially in females (OR: 4.23, p = 0.04). PA levels were insignificantly and negatively (β −0.034; 0.888; 0.240) related to subclinical atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular disease risk profiles and limited PA status may have curbed the beneficial impact of PA on the obesity and atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Article
Letting the World See through Your Eyes: Using Photovoice to Explore the Role of Technology in Physical Activity for Adolescents Living with Type 1 Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106315 - 23 May 2022
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Abstract
This paper qualitatively explores how technologies and physical activity are experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a life-threatening autoimmune condition, which is highly prevalent in young children. Physical activity is underutilised as part of treatment goals due to [...] Read more.
This paper qualitatively explores how technologies and physical activity are experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a life-threatening autoimmune condition, which is highly prevalent in young children. Physical activity is underutilised as part of treatment goals due to multifactorial challenges and lack of education in both the family setting and across society as a whole. Using photovoice methodology, 29 participants (parents and adolescents), individually or as dyads, shared and described in reflective journal format examples of technology and physical activity in their lives. In total, 120 personal photographs with accompanying narratives were provided. The data were thematically coded by the researcher and then collaboratively with participants. Four key themes (and 12 subthemes) were generated including: (i) benefits of technology; (ii) complexity and difficulty; (iii) emotional impact; (iv) reliance and risk. Findings demonstrate that current technology does not address the complex needs of adolescents with type 1 diabetes to enable participation in physical activity without life risk. We conclude from our findings that future technologies for supporting engagement in physical activity as part of diabetes management need to be: more interoperable, personalised and integrated better with ongoing education and support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Review
Adipose Tissue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Response to Dietary Patterns and Exercise: Molecular Landscape, Mechanistic Insights, and Therapeutic Approaches
Biology 2022, 11(5), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050765 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a 3-dimensional network of molecules that play a central role in differentiation, migration, and survival for maintaining normal homeostasis. It seems that ECM remodeling is required for adipose tissue expansion. Despite evidence indicating that ECM is an essential [...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a 3-dimensional network of molecules that play a central role in differentiation, migration, and survival for maintaining normal homeostasis. It seems that ECM remodeling is required for adipose tissue expansion. Despite evidence indicating that ECM is an essential component of tissue physiology, adipose tissue ECM has received limited attention. Hence, there is great interest in approaches to neutralize the harmful effects of ECM enlargement. This review compiles and discusses the current literature on adipose tissue ECM remodeling in response to different dietary patterns and exercise training. High-calorie diets result in substantial adipose tissue ECM remodeling, which in turn could lead to fibrosis (excess deposition of collagens, elastin, and fibronectin), inflammation, and the onset of metabolic dysfunction. However, combining a nutritionally balanced diet with exercise is a remarkable potential strategy for lipolytic activity, preventing rapid ECM expansion in different adipose tissue depots. Despite the distinct exercise modalities (aerobic or resistance exercise) reversing adipose tissue fibrosis in animal models, the beneficial effect on humans remains controversial. Defining molecular pathways and specific mechanisms that mediate the positive effects on adipose tissue, ECM is essential in developing optimized interventions to improve health and clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Intervention Programs in ASEAN Countries: Efficacy and Future Directions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095357 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
A systematic review was conducted on the efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were scanned for eligible studies published from 1978 to August 2021, resulting in a total of 52 relevant studies for review. The Downs [...] Read more.
A systematic review was conducted on the efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were scanned for eligible studies published from 1978 to August 2021, resulting in a total of 52 relevant studies for review. The Downs and Black checklist was used as a quality assessment ool for a risk of bias assessment. The 52 studies were then broadly categorised into three major approach types: informational, behavioural and/or social, as well as direct. Within each major approach, studies were further sub-categorised into more specific intervention types before being assessed for their efficacy and applicability. Overall, the intervention types that seemed to be the most efficacious in increasing physical activity levels were those that involved home-based information provision, community-wide campaigns, incentivised change, individually adapted health behaviour programs, family-based social support interventions and the provision of self-monitoring tools. However, the results must be interpreted holistically, as many of the successful interventions included more than one approach type and success is likely contingent on effectively addressing several concurrent facets. The systematic review is registered on PROSPERO. Registration number: 282752. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Exercise and Chronic Disease)
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