Special Issue "Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. David Labat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (UMR 5563 CNRS UPS IRD) Université de Toulouse, 31000 Toulouse, France
Interests: karst hydrology; time series analyses; wavelet analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

A karstic formation constitutes a three-dimensional hydro-geological basin, which involves both subsurface and surface hydraulics. However, a large number of cities rely on karstic water for drinking. Because of the physical complexity of karstic basins, different types of investigations have been proposed that takes into account the different parameters that can be measured on the field. Effectively, the karstic hydrogeology deals with the coupled analysis of hydrobiogeochemical time series and spatial informations coming from geophysics for example. This special issue aims to propose the latest advances in karst hydrogeology that provides better understanding of karst hydrology especially in context of flood prevention, anthropic influences, pollution and climate and land use change.

Prof. Dr. David Labat
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Karst hydrogeology
  • time series analysis
  • conceptual models
  • numerical models

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
A Hypogene Karst Development Pattern Controlled by the Deep-Cycle of Groundwater in the Syncline in Huanjiang, Guangxi, China
Water 2021, 13(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020199 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Hypogene karst is a special manifestation of karst development in spatial scale. Intensive study of its development mechanism has significant meaning for engineering construction, shale gas and geothermal exploitation. To reveal the developing pattern of hypogene karst in Huanjiang syncline, karst groundwater at [...] Read more.
Hypogene karst is a special manifestation of karst development in spatial scale. Intensive study of its development mechanism has significant meaning for engineering construction, shale gas and geothermal exploitation. To reveal the developing pattern of hypogene karst in Huanjiang syncline, karst groundwater at different depths in wells HD1-2 and HD1-4 and karst springs was selected as the research object. Through the analysis of geochemistry and stable isotopes of karst groundwater, it was revealed that the circulation pattern of deep karst water came from the common recharge of meteoric water and fossil water hosted in karst caves, runoff of deep faulting belts and discharge of large karst springs, over Huanjiang syncline, which provides good hydrodynamic conditions for hypogene karst development. Meanwhile, the widely developed faulting belts and structural fissures provide primitive dissolution space. Through the above analysis, the paper constructs a hypogene karst development pattern controlled by the deep cycle of groundwater in Huanjiang syncline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Magnesium as Environmental Tracer for Karst Spring Baseflow/Overflow Assessment—A Case Study of the Pertuso Karst Spring (Latium Region, Italy)
Water 2021, 13(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010093 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Following a previous research carried out on the same site, this paper presents the update of the Mg2+ based method for the estimation of Pertuso Spring discharge, located in Central Italy. New collected data confirmed the validity of the proposed model and [...] Read more.
Following a previous research carried out on the same site, this paper presents the update of the Mg2+ based method for the estimation of Pertuso Spring discharge, located in Central Italy. New collected data confirmed the validity of the proposed model and the conservative behaviour of Mg2+ for groundwater related to the Pertuso Spring aquifer. Further analysis allowed to obtain a local linear relationship between magnesium concentration and total spring discharge (including exploitation rate), regardless of the mixing model proposed with the Aniene River. As regards two samples which fall out of the linear relationship and could have been detected as “outliers”, more in-depth data processing and sensitivity analyses revealed that the lowering in magnesium, at equal discharges, is determined by the appearance of the quick-flow component, less mineralized and related to storm events. Results showed that under specific conditions, related to the absence or presence of previous intense rainfall events, Mg2+ could be effectively a useful tracer for separating spring conduit flow (overflow) from diffuse flow (baseflow) within the karst aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
An Application of Correlation and Spectral Analysis in Hydrological Study of Neighboring Karst Springs
Water 2020, 12(12), 3570; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123570 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Various methods of time series analysis have been used in studies of karst hydrological systems. Among these methods, correlation and spectral analysis have had an important role. The correlation analysis most often has been based on determination of correlation coefficients and correlation functions. [...] Read more.
Various methods of time series analysis have been used in studies of karst hydrological systems. Among these methods, correlation and spectral analysis have had an important role. The correlation analysis most often has been based on determination of correlation coefficients and correlation functions. Partial correlation functions (PCF) are a mathematical tool of the correlation analysis which practical applicability in karst hydrology is insufficiently explored. In this study, the correlation and spectral analysis are applied on the catchment of Rumin Springs located in the Dinaric karst area between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The available daily data are the rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity from three locations, as well as the discharge from two springs. The periods before and after the construction of HPP Orlovac in 1973 are analyzed. The basic hypothesis is that a difference between PCF obtained for two neighboring karst springs describe a difference in their functioning. The results of application show that PCF can resolve some ambiguities concerning the effects included in correlation functions and can provide the additional information that cannot be obtained by other methods of time series analysis. The obtained results are mostly in accordance with the present knowledge, and they support the existing hypotheses about the functioning of Rumin Springs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Monitoring Reveals Karst Unsaturated Zone Recharge Dynamics during a Rain Event
Water 2020, 12(11), 3183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113183 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Understanding karst unsaturated zone (UZ) recharge dynamics is crucial for achieving sustainable management of karst hydrosystems. In this paper, we provide the first report of the application of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) monitoring of a karst UZ during a typical Mediterranean rain [...] Read more.
Understanding karst unsaturated zone (UZ) recharge dynamics is crucial for achieving sustainable management of karst hydrosystems. In this paper, we provide the first report of the application of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) monitoring of a karst UZ during a typical Mediterranean rain event. This 79 days’ SNMR monitoring is a part of a more than 2 years of SNMR monitoring at the Low Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) experimental site located within the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst hydrosystem (southeastern France). We present eight SNMR soundings conducted before and after the rain event that accumulated 168 mm in 5 days. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability and the efficiency of SNMR for investigating infiltration dynamics in karst UZs at the time scale of a few days. We present the SNMR amplitudes that highlight strong signal variations related to water dynamics in the karst UZ. Infiltrated water cause increased SNMR signal during 5 days after the rain event. A significant draining process of the medium starts 15 days after the main event. Finally, after 42 days, the SNMR signal returns close to the initial state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Evaluation and Quantification of the Effects of Climate and Vegetation Cover Change on Karst Water Sources: Case Studies of Two Springs in South-Western Slovenia
Water 2020, 12(11), 3087; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113087 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Karst aquifers hold important water resources such as regional water budgets and freshwater supply. Due to highly dynamic hydrological processes in comparison to other less permeable systems, they are particularly susceptible to environmental changes. However, little research directly characterizes the impacts of climate [...] Read more.
Karst aquifers hold important water resources such as regional water budgets and freshwater supply. Due to highly dynamic hydrological processes in comparison to other less permeable systems, they are particularly susceptible to environmental changes. However, little research directly characterizes the impacts of climate and vegetation cover changes on karst water sources. In this study, we aimed to evaluate individual long-term impacts and impacts of sudden large-scale forest disturbances on changes in groundwater recharge and in spring discharge. The work is based on temporal analysis of forest cover and a comparison of trend analysis of hydro-meteorological parameters. To investigate and evaluate vegetation cover change impacts on groundwater recharge, we used a soil water balance model and compared estimated actual daily values of effective precipitation to its fictional estimation disregarding the vegetation cover change. The applied methodology enabled quantification of the impacts of climate and vegetation cover change on selected karst water sources. The study suggests that the vegetation cover can have a significant impact on the spring recharge. Large-scale disturbances that occurred in a short-term mitigated the effects expected from the trend analysis of hydro-meteorological parameters. In the long-term, in addition to climate changes, the multi-decadal natural vegetation overgrowth significantly contributed to the reduction in the spring’s discharge values, especially in the warm season when water demand is higher. Therefore, the results are of key importance for developing proper water management and environmental policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Study of Groundwater Flow Properties in a Karst System by Coupled Analysis of Diverse Environmental Tracers and Discharge Dynamics
Water 2020, 12(9), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092442 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
Monitoring of various naturally present substances or physical properties of the water, commonly called environmental tracers, can provide valuable insight in characteristics of groundwater flow systems and intrinsic processes. Analysis of individual tracer data most often gives an ambiguous interpretation, but employment of [...] Read more.
Monitoring of various naturally present substances or physical properties of the water, commonly called environmental tracers, can provide valuable insight in characteristics of groundwater flow systems and intrinsic processes. Analysis of individual tracer data most often gives an ambiguous interpretation, but employment of multiple diverse tracers can greatly increase interpretation reliability. We monitored multiple natural tracers including spring water electrical conductivity, temperature, loads of major anions and cations, stable isotopes of water, and total organic carbon together with discharge dynamics on Krbavica springs located in the Croatian part of Dinaric Karst region. We also monitored dissolved oxygen concentration as an indicator of “excess air” dynamics in the spring water, which is a very rarely recognized and not properly understood phenomenon in the karst groundwater studies. Analysis of the monitoring data revealed main characteristics of the karst system, among which following can be emphasized: (1) oxygen concentration together with conductivity and temperature (parameters monitored with high temporal resolution) were strongly related to discharge dynamics, while seasonal patterns were absent; (2) supersaturation with oxygen confirmed presence of “excess air”, most pronounced in high water conditions following the hydrograph peaks, indicating prevalence of closed flow conditions within the system; (3) electrical conductivity showed “anomalous” gradual decrease during the hydrograph recessions, attributed both to CO2 dynamics and mobilization of water from tiny fissures during high recharge conditions; and (4) stable isotope measurements confirmed good mixing of water within the system with mean residence time of a few years. Simultaneous monitoring of diverse tracer dynamics enabled detailed characterization of the karst system without excessive ambiguity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Application of Geologically Constrained Machine Learning Method in Characterizing Paleokarst Reservoirs of Tarim Basin, China
Water 2020, 12(6), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061765 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
As deep carbonate fracture-cavity paleokarst reservoirs are deeply buried and highly heterogeneous, and the responded seismic signals have weak amplitudes and low signal-to-noise ratios. Machine learning in seismic exploration provides a new perspective to solve the above problems, which is rapidly developing with [...] Read more.
As deep carbonate fracture-cavity paleokarst reservoirs are deeply buried and highly heterogeneous, and the responded seismic signals have weak amplitudes and low signal-to-noise ratios. Machine learning in seismic exploration provides a new perspective to solve the above problems, which is rapidly developing with compelling results. Applying machine learning algorithms directly on deep seismic signals or seismic attributes of deep carbonate fracture-cavity reservoirs without any prior knowledge constraints will result in wasted computation and reduce the accuracy. We propose a method of combining geological constraints and machine learning to describe deep carbonate fracture-cavity paleokarst reservoirs. By empirical mode decomposition, the time–frequency features of the seismic data are obtained and then a sensitive frequency is selected using geological prior constraints, which is input to fuzzy C-means cluster for characterizing the reservoir distribution. Application on Tahe oilfield data shows the potential of highlighting subtle geologic structures that might otherwise escape unnoticed by applying machine learning directly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Coupling SKS and SWMM to Solve the Inverse Problem Based on Artificial Tracer Tests in Karstic Aquifers
Water 2020, 12(4), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041139 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
Artificial tracer tests constitute one of the most powerful tools to investigate solute transport in conduit-dominated karstic aquifers. One can retrieve information about the internal structure of the aquifer directly by a careful analysis of the residence time distribution (RTD). Moreover, recent studies [...] Read more.
Artificial tracer tests constitute one of the most powerful tools to investigate solute transport in conduit-dominated karstic aquifers. One can retrieve information about the internal structure of the aquifer directly by a careful analysis of the residence time distribution (RTD). Moreover, recent studies have shown the strong dependence of solute transport in karstic aquifers on boundary conditions. Information from artificial tracer tests leads us to propose a hypothesis about the internal structure of the aquifers and the effect of the boundary conditions (mainly high or low water level). So, a multi-tracer test calibration of a model appeared to be more consistent in identifying the effects of changes to the boundary conditions and to take into consideration their effects on solute transport. In this study, we proposed to run the inverse problem based on artificial tracer tests with a numerical procedure composed of the following three main steps: (1) conduit network geometries were simulated using a pseudo-genetic algorithm; (2) the hypothesis about boundary conditions was imposed in the simulated conduit networks; and (3) flow and solute transport were simulated. Then, using a trial-and-error procedure, the simulated RTDs were compared to the observed RTD on a large range of simulations, allowing identification of the conduit geometries and boundary conditions that better honor the field data. This constitutes a new approach to better constrain inverse problems using a multi-tracer test calibration including transient flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Groundwater Circulation in Fractured and Karstic Aquifers of the Umbria-Marche Apennine
Water 2020, 12(4), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041039 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
The Umbria-Marche Apennine has a large number of springs that drain water stored in carbonate formations. Spring groundwater constitutes a crucial freshwater resource for many countries, regions, and cities around the world. This study aimed to understand the hydrological mechanisms behind groundwater circulation [...] Read more.
The Umbria-Marche Apennine has a large number of springs that drain water stored in carbonate formations. Spring groundwater constitutes a crucial freshwater resource for many countries, regions, and cities around the world. This study aimed to understand the hydrological mechanisms behind groundwater circulation and their relationship to the structural and stratigraphic settings of specific aquifers. Recession analysis and time series analysis were applied to the daily discharge of six springs monitored over eight years. Both analyses indicated the presence of two types of aquifers: aquifer with unimodal behavior and aquifer with bimodal behavior. The first are characterized by two hydrodynamic sub-regimes, in which fracture networks control the baseflow and conduit networks control the quickflow. In contrast, other springs present only one hydrodynamic sub-regime related to fracture network drainage. Time series analysis confirms the results of recession analysis, showing a large memory effect and a large response time, implying the dominance of the baseflow sub-regime. These results indicate that the Maiolica Formation is characterized by a high degree of fracturation and slight karstification, which control infiltration and percolation, whereas the Calcare Massiccio Formation regulates groundwater circulation in the deeper zones of the aquifer, characterized by a high degree of karstification through moderately developed conduit networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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Article
Hydrothermal Dolomite Paleokarst Reservoir Development in Wolonghe Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, Revealed by Seismic Characterization
Water 2020, 12(2), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020579 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
Hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoir is a type of porous carbonate reservoir, which has a secondary porosity and can store a large amount of oil and gas underground. The reservoir is formed by magnesium-rich hydrothermal fluids during the karstification and later stages of the [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoir is a type of porous carbonate reservoir, which has a secondary porosity and can store a large amount of oil and gas underground. The reservoir is formed by magnesium-rich hydrothermal fluids during the karstification and later stages of the transformation. Due to the strong heterogeneity and thin thickness of hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoirs, it is a real challenge to characterize the spatial distribution of the reservoirs. In this paper, we studied the hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoir in the Wolonghe gasfield of the eastern Sichuan Basin. First, based on detailed observations of core samples, the characteristics and storage space types of the dolomite reservoir were described. Secondly, the petrophysical parameters of the paleokarst reservoirs were analyzed, and then the indicator factor for the dolomite reservoirs was established. Thirdly, using the time–depth conversion method, the geological characteristics near boreholes were connected with a three-dimensional (3D) seismic dataset. Several petrophysical parameters were predicted by prestack synchronous inversion technology, including the P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, P-wave impedance, and the hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoir indicator factor. Finally, the hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoirs were quantitatively predicted, and their distribution model was built. The 3D geophysical characterization approach improves our understanding of hydrothermal dolomite paleokarst reservoirs, and can also be applied to other similar heterogeneous reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
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