Plant- and Microbial-Based Novel Biosorbents

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 14094

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Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
Interests: adsorption; pollutant removal from water and wastewater; environmental chemistry; water protection
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Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, University of Osijek, F. Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: food chemistry; food analysis; food safety; innovative food production; sustainability
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Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj University of Osijek, Franje Kuhaca 18, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: water quality monitoring; drinking water and wastewater treatment; adsorption; arsenic; nutrients
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Protecting aquatic ecosystems from pollution caused by anthropogenic activities is a major challenge in an era characterized by the rapid development of technology, intensification of industrial activities, and population growth. In addition, the supply of sufficient quantities of clean water is another growing problem in many countries, as surface- and groundwaters are often contaminated with various organic and inorganic compounds, many of which are listed as contaminants of emerging concern. For this reason, various methods (physical, chemical, and biological) have been researched and developed to remove pollutants from water and wastewater, of which adsorption is the most commonly used due to its versatility, ease of application, and efficiency. The main problem with the use of conventional adsorbents (e.g., coal-based activated carbon) is their price and the fact that regeneration is not straightforward and may result in reduced adsorption capacity and also the disposal of spent adsorbents. Therefore, widely available and cheap materials, such as plant- and microbial-based, are being investigated as possible low-cost adsorbents, either in their native (unmodified) or modified forms (including biochar). Biosorption is a subcategory of adsorption in which the adsorbent is of biological origin (hence called biosorbent). Biosorbents have been proposed as promising natural materials for the removal of pollutants from water. The adsorption capacities of native biosorbents are often much lower than those of conventional adsorbents, so attempts have been made to improve adsorption capacities through various modification techniques, including physical and chemical methods, and the preparation of biochar. This Special Issue deals with the development and application of novel plant- and microbial-based biosorbents for the effective removal of pollutants from water and wastewater.

Dr. Marija Stjepanović
Dr. Natalija Velić
Prof. Dr. Mirna Habuda-Stanic
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biosorbents
  • biosorption
  • modification
  • desorption
  • contaminant removal
  • water and wastewater treatment

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 24351 KiB  
Article
Biosorption and Bioaccumulation Capacity of Arthospiraplatensis toward Europium Ions
by Nikita Yushin, Inga Zinicovscaia, Liliana Cepoi, Tatiana Chiriac, Ludmila Rudi and Dmitrii Grozdov
Water 2022, 14(13), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132128 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Europium recovery from wastewater is determined by its high significance for industry and toxicity for living organisms. The capacity of cyanobacteria Arthospira platensis (Spirulina) to remove Eu(III) through biosorption and bioaccumulation was evaluated. In biosorption experiments, the effects of four variables [...] Read more.
Europium recovery from wastewater is determined by its high significance for industry and toxicity for living organisms. The capacity of cyanobacteria Arthospira platensis (Spirulina) to remove Eu(III) through biosorption and bioaccumulation was evaluated. In biosorption experiments, the effects of four variables pH, metal concentration, time, and temperature on metal removal were studied. In bioaccumulation experiments, the effect of Eu(III) concentrations on biomass bioaccumulation capacity and biochemical composition was assessed. The efficiency of Eu(III) uptake in both experiments was determined using ICP-AES techniques. Maximum biosorption of Eu(III) was achieved at pH 3.0. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir and Freundlich models, with maximum adsorption capacity of 89.5 mg/g. The pseudo-first-, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models were found to correlate well with the experimental data. According to thermodynamic studies the sorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. At addition of Eu(III) ions in the cultivation medium in concentrations of 10–30 mg/L, its accumulation in biomass was 9.8–29.8 mg/g (removal efficiency constituting 98–99%). Eu(III) did not affect productivity and content of carbohydrates and pigments in biomass but led to the decrease of the content of protein and an increase in the amount of MDA. The high Eu(III) biosorption and bioaccumulation efficiency of Arthrospira platensis may constitute an effective and eco-friendly strategy to recover it from contaminated environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant- and Microbial-Based Novel Biosorbents)
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15 pages, 1831 KiB  
Article
Sugar Beet Processing Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae through Biosorption
by Nadiia Khakimova, Nikola Maravić, Petar Davidović, Dajana Blagojević, Milena Bečelić-Tomin, Jelica Simeunović, Vesna Pešić, Zita Šereš, Anamarija Mandić, Milica Pojić and Aleksandra Mišan
Water 2022, 14(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060860 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3996
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of environmental pollution reduction of sugar beet processing factory wastewater by the biorefinery approach and integration of microalgae biomass production. In the present study, Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater collected from a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of environmental pollution reduction of sugar beet processing factory wastewater by the biorefinery approach and integration of microalgae biomass production. In the present study, Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in wastewater collected from a sugar beet processing factory at the beginning and at the end of a sugar plant campaign in an aerobic bioreactor on a laboratory scale under controlled conditions, with an air flow of 0.4 L/min, a temperature of 26 °C, and pH = 8. Microalgae showed effective nutrient remediation from wastewater. During wastewater treatment, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency was 93.7% and 98.1%, respectively; total organic carbon (TOC) content decreased by 95.7%. Nitrites and nitrates decreased by 96%, while the biggest decrease in metal ions was achieved for Ca and Mn (82.7% and 97.6%, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that coupling microalgae cultivation and wastewater treatment has a lot of potential for reducing contamination through biosorption, while also providing environmental advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant- and Microbial-Based Novel Biosorbents)
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18 pages, 6307 KiB  
Article
Modified Hazelnut Shells as a Novel Adsorbent for the Removal of Nitrate from Wastewater
by Marija Stjepanović, Natalija Velić and Mirna Habuda-Stanić
Water 2022, 14(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050816 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
The aim of the study was to prepare a novel adsorbent by chemical modification of hazelnut shells and evaluate its potential for the nitrate removal from model solutions and real wastewater. The characterization of the novel adsorbent, i.e., modified hazelnut shell (MHS) was [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to prepare a novel adsorbent by chemical modification of hazelnut shells and evaluate its potential for the nitrate removal from model solutions and real wastewater. The characterization of the novel adsorbent, i.e., modified hazelnut shell (MHS) was performed. The adsorbent characterization included the analysis of elemental composition and the surface characteristics analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption experiments (batch technique) were performed to investigate the effects of adsorbent concentration, contact time, initial nitrate concentration, and solution pH. The nitrate removal efficiency increased with the increase in MHS concentration and decreased with the initial nitrate concentration. MHS was found to be effective in nitrate removal over a wide pH range (from 2 to 10), and the highest amount of nitrate adsorbed was 25.79 mg g−1 in a model nitrate solution. Depending on the aqueous medium (model solutions or real wastewater samples), it was shown that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models can be used to interpret the adsorption process. It was found that the kinetics are well described by a pseudo-second order model and the nitrate adsorption process can be controlled by chemisorption. The intraparticle diffusion model has been used to identify an adsorption-controlled process by diffusion mechanisms. Adsorption/desorption experiments in column confirmed that MHS could be successfully used in multiple cycles (at least three), indicating the potential of MHS as an alternative to costly commercial adsorbents for the removal of nitrates from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant- and Microbial-Based Novel Biosorbents)
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19 pages, 3884 KiB  
Article
Rice Straw as a Natural Sorbent in a Filter System as an Approach to Bioremediate Diesel Pollution
by Siti Hajar Taufik, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Nur Nadhirah Zakaria, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Alyza Azzura Azmi, Farah Eryssa Khalid, Faradina Merican, Peter Convey, Azham Zulkharnain and Khalilah Abdul Khalil
Water 2021, 13(23), 3317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233317 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4243
Abstract
Rice straw, an agricultural waste product generated in huge quantities worldwide, is utilized to remediate diesel pollution as it possesses excellent characteristics as a natural sorbent. This study aimed to optimize factors that significantly influence the sorption capacity and the efficiency of oil [...] Read more.
Rice straw, an agricultural waste product generated in huge quantities worldwide, is utilized to remediate diesel pollution as it possesses excellent characteristics as a natural sorbent. This study aimed to optimize factors that significantly influence the sorption capacity and the efficiency of oil absorption from diesel-polluted seawater by rice straw (RS). Spectroscopic analysis by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and surface morphology characterization by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were carried out in order to understand the sorbent capability. Optimization of the factors of temperature pre-treatment of RS (90, 100, 110, 120, 130 or 140 °C), time of heating (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70 min), packing density (0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.14 or 0.16 g cm−3) and oil concentration (5, 10, 15, 20 or 25% (v/v)) was carried out using the conventional one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach. To eliminate any non-significant factors, a Plackett–Burman design (PBD) in the response surface methodology (RSM) was used. A central composite design (CCD) was used to identify the presence of significant interactions between factors. The quadratic model produced provided a very good fit to the data (R2 = 0.9652). The optimized conditions generated from the CCD were 120 °C, 10 min, 0.148 g cm−3 and 25% (v/v), and these conditions enhanced oil sorption capacity from 19.6 (OFAT) to 26 mL of diesel oil, a finding verified experimentally. This study provides an improved understanding of the use of a natural sorbent as an approach to remediate diesel pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant- and Microbial-Based Novel Biosorbents)
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