Special Issue "Insights into Organic Carbon, Iron, Metals and Phosphorus Dynamics in Freshwaters"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Liudmila S. Shirokova
Website
Guest Editor
Georesources and Environnement Toulouse GET UMR 5563 CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse 31400, France
Interests: environment; biodiversity; water quality; environmental impact assessment; lakes, rivers, microorganisms, greenhouse gases, biogeochemical cycles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Organic carbon (OC), iron (Fe), and phosphorus (P) are three key aquatic components that largely determine the biotic and abiotic functioning of freshwater systems, including groundwater, soil water, lakes, rivers, and their estuaries.

Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest regarding the elevation in organic carbon and iron concentrations in freshwaters in relation to the so-called “browning” effect, caused by climate warming and changes in anthropogenic pressure. As for phosphorus, it is a vital element for all aquatic ecosystems and its aquatic biogeochemical cycle now undergoes sizable changes linked to eutrophication, invasive species development, and transformations between organic and inorganic forms.

This Special Issue welcomes articles dedicated to all aspects of the behavior of organic carbon, phosphorus, iron (and other related metals) in a broad range of freshwater environments, from soil solutions and groundwaters to ponds, lakes, rivers, and their riparian zones and estuaries. Of special interest are papers dealing with the fate of OC, P, and Fe due to the impact of climate change and human activities on aquatic ecosystems, including both anthropogenically altered and pristine regions. Works dealing with biogeochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystems mostly affected by climate change and exhibiting high C and Fe concentrations (boreal and subarctic rivers and lakes, wetlands, floodplains) are perfectly suited for this Special Issue.

Papers on field, experimental, and modeling studies related to dissolved and particulate OC, Fe, and P may focus on climate warming, permafrost thaw, floods, eutrophication, acidification, pollution, and the recovery of aquatic environments, though other contexts are also of interest.

Dr. Liudmila S. Shirokova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • rivers
  • groundwater
  • soil solutions
  • biogeochemical cycles
  • eutrophication
  • acidification
  • pollution
  • climate warming
  • organic carbon
  • phosphorus
  • iron
  • trace metal

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Spatial and Seasonal Variations of C, Nutrient, and Metal Concentration in Thermokarst Lakes of Western Siberia Across a Permafrost Gradient
Water 2020, 12(6), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061830 - 26 Jun 2020
Abstract
Thermokarst lakes and ponds formed due to thawing of frozen peat in high-latitude lowlands are very dynamic and environmentally important aquatic systems that play a key role in controlling C emission to atmosphere and organic carbon (OC), nutrient, and metal lateral export to [...] Read more.
Thermokarst lakes and ponds formed due to thawing of frozen peat in high-latitude lowlands are very dynamic and environmentally important aquatic systems that play a key role in controlling C emission to atmosphere and organic carbon (OC), nutrient, and metal lateral export to rivers and streams. However, despite the importance of thermokarst lakes in assessing biogeochemical functioning of permafrost peatlands in response to climate warming and permafrost thaw, spatial (lake size, permafrost zone) and temporal (seasonal) variations in thermokarst lake hydrochemistry remain very poorly studied. Here, we used unprecedented spatial coverage (isolated, sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zone of the western Siberia Lowland) of 67 lakes ranging in size from 102 to 105 m2 for sampling during three main hydrological periods of the year: spring flood, summer baseflow, and autumn time before ice-on. We demonstrate a systematic, all-season decrease in the concentration of dissolved OC (DOC) and an increase in SO4, N-NO3, and some metal (Mn, Co, Cu, Mo, Sr, U, Sb) concentration with an increase in lake surface area, depending on the type of the permafrost zone. These features are interpreted as a combination of (i) OC and organically bound metal leaching from peat at the lake shore, via abrasion and delivery of these compounds by suprapermafrost flow, and (ii) deep groundwater feeding of large lakes (especially visible in the continuous permafrost zone). Analyses of lake water chemical composition across the permafrost gradient allowed a first-order empirical prediction of lake hydrochemical changes in the case of climate warming and permafrost thaw, employing a substituting space for time scenario. The permafrost boundary shift northward may decrease the concentrations and pools of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Li, B, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Mo, Sr, Y, Zr, rare Earth elements (REEs), Th, and U by a factor of 2–5 in the continuous permafrost zone, but increase the concentrations of CH4, DOC, NH4, Cd, Sb, and Pb by a factor of 2–3. In contrast, the shift of the sporadic to isolated zone may produce a 2–5-fold decrease in CH4, DOC, NH4, Al, P, Ti, Cr, Ni, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cs, REEs, Hf, Th, and U. The exact magnitude of this response will, however, be strongly seasonally dependent, with the largest effects observable during baseflow seasons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Permafrost Thaw and Climate Warming on Riverine Export Fluxes of Carbon, Nutrients and Metals in Western Siberia
Water 2020, 12(6), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061817 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
The assessment of riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and metals in surface waters of permafrost-affected regions is crucially important for constraining adequate models of ecosystem functioning under various climate change scenarios. In this regard, the largest permafrost peatland territory on the Earth, the [...] Read more.
The assessment of riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and metals in surface waters of permafrost-affected regions is crucially important for constraining adequate models of ecosystem functioning under various climate change scenarios. In this regard, the largest permafrost peatland territory on the Earth, the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) presents a unique opportunity of studying possible future changes in biogeochemical cycles because it lies within a south–north gradient of climate, vegetation, and permafrost that ranges from the permafrost-free boreal to the Arctic tundra with continuous permafrost at otherwise similar relief and bedrocks. By applying a “substituting space for time” scenario, the WSL south-north gradient may serve as a model for future changes due to permafrost boundary shift and climate warming. Here we measured export fluxes (yields) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major cations, macro- and micro- nutrients, and trace elements in 32 rivers, draining the WSL across a latitudinal transect from the permafrost-free to the continuous permafrost zone. We aimed at quantifying the impact of climate warming (water temperature rise and permafrost boundary shift) on DOC, nutrient and metal in rivers using a “substituting space for time” approach. We demonstrate that, contrary to common expectations, the climate warming and permafrost thaw in the WSL will likely decrease the riverine export of organic C and many elements. Based on the latitudinal pattern of riverine export, in the case of a northward shift in the permafrost zones, the DOC, P, N, Si, Fe, divalent heavy metals, trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates are likely to decrease the yields by a factor of 2–5. The DIC, Ca, SO4, Sr, Ba, Mo, and U are likely to increase their yields by a factor of 2–3. Moreover, B, Li, K, Rb, Cs, N-NO3, Mg, Zn, As, Sb, Rb, and Cs may be weakly affected by the permafrost boundary migration (change of yield by a factor of 1.5 to 2.0). We conclude that modeling of C and element cycle in the Arctic and subarctic should be region-specific and that neglecting huge areas of permafrost peatlands might produce sizeable bias in our predictions of climate change impact. Full article
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