Next Article in Journal
Existing Empirical Kinetic Models in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Testing, Their Selection and Numerical Solution
Next Article in Special Issue
Seasonal Variations of Dissolved Iron Concentration in Active Layer and Rivers in Permafrost Areas, Russian Far East
Previous Article in Journal
Salinity Management in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of Permafrost Thaw and Climate Warming on Riverine Export Fluxes of Carbon, Nutrients and Metals in Western Siberia
Article

Spatial and Seasonal Variations of C, Nutrient, and Metal Concentration in Thermokarst Lakes of Western Siberia Across a Permafrost Gradient

1
BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina av., 634004 Tomsk, Russia
2
Federal Center for Integrated Arctic research, Institute of Ecological Problem of the North, 23 Nab Severnoi Dviny, 163000 Arkhangelsk, Russia
3
GET UMR 5563 CNRS University of Toulouse, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061830
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
Thermokarst lakes and ponds formed due to thawing of frozen peat in high-latitude lowlands are very dynamic and environmentally important aquatic systems that play a key role in controlling C emission to atmosphere and organic carbon (OC), nutrient, and metal lateral export to rivers and streams. However, despite the importance of thermokarst lakes in assessing biogeochemical functioning of permafrost peatlands in response to climate warming and permafrost thaw, spatial (lake size, permafrost zone) and temporal (seasonal) variations in thermokarst lake hydrochemistry remain very poorly studied. Here, we used unprecedented spatial coverage (isolated, sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zone of the western Siberia Lowland) of 67 lakes ranging in size from 102 to 105 m2 for sampling during three main hydrological periods of the year: spring flood, summer baseflow, and autumn time before ice-on. We demonstrate a systematic, all-season decrease in the concentration of dissolved OC (DOC) and an increase in SO4, N-NO3, and some metal (Mn, Co, Cu, Mo, Sr, U, Sb) concentration with an increase in lake surface area, depending on the type of the permafrost zone. These features are interpreted as a combination of (i) OC and organically bound metal leaching from peat at the lake shore, via abrasion and delivery of these compounds by suprapermafrost flow, and (ii) deep groundwater feeding of large lakes (especially visible in the continuous permafrost zone). Analyses of lake water chemical composition across the permafrost gradient allowed a first-order empirical prediction of lake hydrochemical changes in the case of climate warming and permafrost thaw, employing a substituting space for time scenario. The permafrost boundary shift northward may decrease the concentrations and pools of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Li, B, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Mo, Sr, Y, Zr, rare Earth elements (REEs), Th, and U by a factor of 2–5 in the continuous permafrost zone, but increase the concentrations of CH4, DOC, NH4, Cd, Sb, and Pb by a factor of 2–3. In contrast, the shift of the sporadic to isolated zone may produce a 2–5-fold decrease in CH4, DOC, NH4, Al, P, Ti, Cr, Ni, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cs, REEs, Hf, Th, and U. The exact magnitude of this response will, however, be strongly seasonally dependent, with the largest effects observable during baseflow seasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: permafrost; lake; trace metals; carbon; season; thermokarst; Western Siberia permafrost; lake; trace metals; carbon; season; thermokarst; Western Siberia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Manasypov, R.M.; Lim, A.G.; Kriсkov, I.V.; Shirokova, L.S.; Vorobyev, S.N.; Kirpotin, S.N.; Pokrovsky, O.S. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of C, Nutrient, and Metal Concentration in Thermokarst Lakes of Western Siberia Across a Permafrost Gradient. Water 2020, 12, 1830. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061830

AMA Style

Manasypov RM, Lim AG, Kriсkov IV, Shirokova LS, Vorobyev SN, Kirpotin SN, Pokrovsky OS. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of C, Nutrient, and Metal Concentration in Thermokarst Lakes of Western Siberia Across a Permafrost Gradient. Water. 2020; 12(6):1830. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061830

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manasypov, Rinat M., Artem G. Lim, Ivan V. Kriсkov, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Sergey N. Kirpotin, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky 2020. "Spatial and Seasonal Variations of C, Nutrient, and Metal Concentration in Thermokarst Lakes of Western Siberia Across a Permafrost Gradient" Water 12, no. 6: 1830. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061830

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop