Special Issue "Effects of Diagenetic Alterations on Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Water Aquifers"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 March 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Howri Mansurbeg
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Adjunct professor at School of the Environment, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
Interests: reservoir diagenesis; carbonate; sedimentary geology; geochemistry; petroleum geology’ sequence stratigraphy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reservoir quality (porosity and permeability) and heterogeneity in carbonate and siliciclastic hydrocarbon reservoirs and groundwater aquifers are to a large extent constrained by diagenetic processes such as biological, chemical, biochemical, and mechanical changes that occur in sediments subsequent to deposition and prior to low-grade metamorphism. Diagenesis, which has a variable but overall important impact on reservoir-quality evolution, is controlled by several inter-related parameters. These parameters include depositional composition of the sediments, depositional facies, sequence stratigraphy, pore water chemistry, burial history and tectonic setting of the basin, and paleoclimatic conditions.

Carbonate and siliciclastic sediments often undergo multiple stages of diagenesis, which are related to complex patterns of burial-thermal history (subsidence and uplift) that are controlled by the tectonic evolution of the basin. Tectonic evolution of the basin is controlled by the position of the basin with respect to the type and activity along the plate boundaries. Episodes of burial and uplift may result in profound modifications in the pressure–temperature regimes and in the extent of mineral–water interaction, and hence, in various phases of compaction as well as mineral dissolution, recrystallization, transformation and cementation. Diagenesis impacts reservoir quality as follows: (i) destruction by mechanical compaction and extensive cementation, (ii) preservation by prevention of mechanical and chemical compaction, or (iii) generation by dissolution of labile framework grains and intergranular cements.

 For this Special Issue, we encourage submissions by geoscientists who are: (i) dealing with hydrocarbon reservoirs and groundwater aquifers and (ii) engaged in deciphering the interplay between mineralogical and chemical changes in carbonates and siliciclastic sediments and diagenetic processes, fluid flow, tectonics, mineral reactions at variable scales, and environments from a variety of sedimentary basins. Numerical modeling of diagenetic reactions using a variety of techniques are essential to understand the pathways of these reactions in different diagenetic environments and, consequently, reservoir quality evolutions.

Prof. Dr. Howri Mansurbeg
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • reservoir/aquifer diagenesis
  • reservoir/aquifer geology
  • petroleum reservoirs
  • hydrogeology
  • geochemistry of sedimentary rocks
  • groundwater flow and mineral diagenesis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Tracking the Origin and Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids of Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks in the Zagros Thrust Fold Belt, NE-Iraq
Water 2021, 13(22), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223284 - 19 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Utilizing sophisticated tools in carbonate rocks is crucial to interpretating the origin and evolution of diagenetic fluids from the Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks along the Zagros thrust-fold Belt. The origin and evolution of the paleofluids utilizing in-situ strontium isotope ratios by high resolution [...] Read more.
Utilizing sophisticated tools in carbonate rocks is crucial to interpretating the origin and evolution of diagenetic fluids from the Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks along the Zagros thrust-fold Belt. The origin and evolution of the paleofluids utilizing in-situ strontium isotope ratios by high resolution laser ablation ICP-MS, integrated with stable isotopes, petrography and fieldwork are constrained. Due to the lack of information on the origin of the chemistry of the fluids, the cements that filled the Jurassic carbonate rocks were analysed from the fractures and pores. This allowed us to trace the origin of fluids along a diagenetic sequence, which is defined at the beginning from the sediment deposition (pristine facies). Based on petrography and geochemistry (oxygen-, carbon- and strontium-isotope compositions) two major diagenetic stages involving the fluids were identified. The initial stage, characterized by negative δ13CVPDB values (reaching −10.67‰), involved evaporated seawater deposited with the sediments, mixed with the input of freshwater. The second stage involved a mixture of meteoric water and hot fluids that precipitated as late diagenetic cements. The late diagenetic cements have higher depleted O–C isotope compositions compared to seawater. The diagenetic cements display a positive covariance and were associated with extra- δ13CVPDB and δ18OVPDB values (−12.87‰ to −0.82‰ for δ18OVPDB and −11.66‰ to −1.40‰ for δ13CVPDB respectively). The distinction between seawater and the secondary fluids is also evident in the 87Sr/86Sr of the host limestone versus cements. The limestones have 87Sr/86Sr up to 0.72859, indicative of riverine input, while the cements have 87Sr/86Sr of (0.70772), indicative of hot fluid circulation interacting with meteoric water during late diagenesis. Full article
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Article
Dolomitization of Paleozoic Successions, Huron Domain of Southern Ontario, Canada: Fluid Flow and Dolomite Evolution
Water 2021, 13(17), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172449 - 06 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Integrated petrographic, isotopic, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and geochemical analyses of Paleozoic carbonate successions from multiple boreholes within the Huron Domain, southern Ontario were conducted to characterize the diagenetic history and fluid composition, on a regional scale, and evaluate the nature and origin of [...] Read more.
Integrated petrographic, isotopic, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and geochemical analyses of Paleozoic carbonate successions from multiple boreholes within the Huron Domain, southern Ontario were conducted to characterize the diagenetic history and fluid composition, on a regional scale, and evaluate the nature and origin of dolomitized beds. Multiple generations of non-stochiometric dolomite have been observed. These dolomites occur as both replacement (D1 and D2) and cement (saddle dolomite; SD) and formed either at near-surface to shallow burial zone (D1) or intermediate burial (D2 and SD). Petrographic and geochemical data of dolomite types and calcite cement suggest that these carbonates have experienced multiple fluid events that affected dolomite formation and other diagenetic processes. Cambrian and Ordovician strata have two possibly isolated diagenetic fluid systems; an earlier fluid system that is characterized by a pronounced negative shift in oxygen and carbon isotopic composition, more radiogenic Sr ratios, warm and saline signatures, higher average ∑REE compared to warm water marine brachiopods, negative La anomaly, and positive Ce anomaly; and a later Ordovician system, characterized by less negative shifts in oxygen and carbon isotopes, comparable Th, hypersaline, a less radiogenic, less negative La anomaly, and primarily positive Ce anomaly but also higher average ∑REE compared to warm water marine brachiopods. Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian Sr isotopic ratios, however, show seawater composition of their respective age as the primary source of diagenetic fluids with minor rock/water interactions. In contrast, the isotopic data of the overlying Silurian and Devonian carbonates show overlaps between δ13C and δ18O values. However, δ18O values show evidence of dolomite recrystallization. D2 shows wide Th values and medium to high salinity values. Higher Th and salinity are observed in SD in the Silurian carbonates, which suggest the involvement of localized fluxes of hydrothermal fluids during its formation during Paleozoic orogenesis. Geochemical proxies suggest that in both age groups the diagenetic fluids were originally of coeval seawater composition, subsequently modified via water-rock interaction possibly related to brines, which were modified by the dissolution of Silurian evaporites from the Salina series. The integration of the obtained data in the present study demonstrates the linkage between fluid flux history, fluid compartmentalization, and related diagenesis during the regional tectonic evolution of the Michigan Basin. Full article
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Article
Origin of Drusy Dolomite Cement in Permo-Triassic Dolostones, Northern United Arab Emirates
Water 2021, 13(14), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141908 - 09 Jul 2021
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Abstract
While the characteristics and origin of drusy calcite cement in carbonate deposits is well constrained in the literature, little attention is paid to drusy dolomite cement. Petrographic observations, stable isotopes, and fluid-inclusion microthermometry suggest that drusy dolomite cement in Permo-Triassic conglomerate/breccia dolostone beds [...] Read more.
While the characteristics and origin of drusy calcite cement in carbonate deposits is well constrained in the literature, little attention is paid to drusy dolomite cement. Petrographic observations, stable isotopes, and fluid-inclusion microthermometry suggest that drusy dolomite cement in Permo-Triassic conglomerate/breccia dolostone beds in northern United Arab Emirates has precipitated as cement and not by dolomitization of drusy calcite cement. The low δ18OVPDB (−9.4‰ to −6.2‰) and high homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in drusy dolomite (Th = 73–233 °C) suggest that dolomitization was caused by hot basinal brines (salinity = 23.4 wt% NaCl eq.). The δ13CVPDB values (+0.18‰ to +1.6‰) and 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.708106 to 0.708147) indicate that carbon and strontium were derived from the host marine Permo-Triassic carbonates. Following this dolomitization event, blocky calcite (Th = 148 °C; salinity = 20.8 wt% NaCl eq.) precipitated from the hot basinal brines. Unravelling the origin of drusy dolomite cement has important implications for accurate construction of paragenetic sequences in carbonate rocks and decipher the origin and chemistry of diagenetic waters in sedimentary basins. Full article
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Article
The Origin of Quartz Cement in the Upper Triassic Second Member of the Xujiahe Formation Sandstones, Western Sichuan Basin, China
Water 2021, 13(14), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141890 - 08 Jul 2021
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Abstract
High-precision in situ δ18O values obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for μm-size quartz cement are applied to constrain the origin of the silica in the deep-buried Upper Triassic second member of Xujiahe Formation tight sandstones, western Sichuan Basin, China. [...] Read more.
High-precision in situ δ18O values obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for μm-size quartz cement are applied to constrain the origin of the silica in the deep-buried Upper Triassic second member of Xujiahe Formation tight sandstones, western Sichuan Basin, China. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence (CL), and fluid inclusion data from the quartz cements in the Xu2 sandstones indicate three distinct, separate quartz precipitation phases (referred to as Q1, Q2, and Q3). The Q1 quartz cement was formed at temperatures of approximately 56–85 °C and attained the highest δ18O values (ranging from 18.3 to 19.05‰ Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW)). The Q2 quartz cement was generated at temperatures of approximately 90–125 °C, accompanying the main phase of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions, with the highest Al2O3 content and high δ18O values (ranging from 15 to 17.99‰ VSMOW). The Q3 quartz cement was formed at temperatures of approximately 130–175 °C, with the lowest δ18O values (ranging from 12.79 to 15.47‰ VSMOW). A portion of the Q2 and Q3 quartz cement has a relatively high K2O content. The dissolution of feldspar and volcanic rock fragments was likely the most important source of silica for the Q1 quartz cement. The variations in δ18O(water) and trace element composition from the Q2 quartz cement to the Q3 quartz cement suggest that hydrocarbon emplacement and water-rock interactions greatly altered the chemistry of the pore fluid. Feldspar dissolution by organic acids, clay mineral reactions (illitization and chloritization of smectite), and pressure dissolution were the main sources of silica for the Q2 and Q3 quartz cements, while transformation of the clay minerals in the external shale unit was a limited silica source. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1.
Title: Hydrothermal fluids and cold meteoric waters along tectonic-controlled open spaces in Upper Cretaceous carbonate rocks, NE-Iraq: Scanning data from in situ U-Pb geochronology and microthermometry
Author: Namam Salih, Howri Mansurbeg, Philip Muchez, Alain Préat
Abstract: The Upper Cretaceous carbonates along ZTFB “Harir-Safin anticlines” experienced extensive hot brine fluids that produced several phases of hydrothermal cements-induced hot fluid injection. Detailed fluid inclusions and microthermometry data show that the saddle dolomites precipitated from deep hydrothermal fluxes (83°C – 118°C) and very saline fluids (up to 25 eq. wt.% NaCl; i.e., 7 times the seawater salinity). The fluid is interacted with brine rocks during their circulation before invading the Upper Cretaceous carbonates.
Two entrapment episodes of FIs hosted in the hydrothermal “HT” cements: early and late episodes. The early entrapment episode of FIs is linked to the fault-related fractures and was contemporaneous with the precipitation of the HT cements, and it leaked and refilled again in a later diagenetic event. The late entrapment episode of FIs is consistent with low saline fluids (0.18 and 2.57 eq. wt.% NaCl) formed under near-surface conditions.
Utilizing the LA U-Pb dating two numerical ages of ~70 Ma and 3.8 Ma are identified from lower calcrete level samples. These two ages were corresponded to two significant features within the same level of calcrete, indicate that this calcrete level was twice exposed to subaerial conditions. The earlier exposure was associated with alveolar and other microbial diagenetic features such as dissolution, micritization, cementation…etc. while the second calcrete exposure is associated with laminae, pisolitic, and microstromatolite features during regional uplifting of the area in the Pliocene time.
In conclusion, the HT-saddle dolomites precipitated from high temperature fluids with brine fluid inclusions entrapped the saddle dolomite crystals, while the calcrete rocks entrapped large monophasic secondary fluid inclusions with low brine water close to meteoric water. 

2.
Title: Pre-, Syn- and Post tectonic Diagenesis and Porosity Evolution: an example from Fahliyan Carbonate Reservoirs (Lower Cretaceous) from the Zagros Basin, Iran

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