Effect of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on Groundwater Resources

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2024 | Viewed by 5250

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
Interests: safety groundwater resource evaluation and environmental protection; ecological hydrogeology; water safety

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Guest Editor
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, HeBei University of Water Resources and Electric Engineering, Cangzhou Technology Innovation Center of Remote Sensing and Smart Water, Cangzhou 061001, China
Interests: groundwater hydrology; groundwater bearing capacity; groundwater of saline-alkali land; water resources evaluation; water resources optimization; geological hazard risk assessment; numerical simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater resources are indispensable geological resources in the world's production, life, ecology and other aspects, but also an important necessary water source for people's lives to survive, and play an extremely important supporting role for human survival and development. With the exploitation of groundwater year by year, groundwater is faced with groundwater environmental problems such as the drop of water level in the exploitation area, the reduction of resources and the risk of being polluted. In addition, the global climate has changed dramatically in recent years, with increased rainfall and rising temperatures. Under the background of drastic change of global climate and strengthening of human activities, the evolution law of regional groundwater resources presents new characteristics. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to carry the regional groundwater research for realizing regional sustainable development and groundwater sustainable utilization.

Prof. Dr. Yudong Lu
Dr. Huanhuan Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • groundwater characteristics
  • groundwater chemistry
  • groundwater pollution
  • numerical simulation of groundwater flow
  • relationship between salinization and groundwater
  • impacts of climate change on groundwater
  • response of groundwater to human activities
  • ecological effects of groundwater

Published Papers (4 papers)

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22 pages, 42889 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index for Groundwater Sustainability in the Komadugu-Yobe Basin, Sahel Region
by Abdulrahman Shuaibu, Robert M. Kalin, Vernon Phoenix, Limbikani C. Banda and Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal
Water 2024, 16(4), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040601 - 18 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
The assessment of hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality is crucial for environmental sustainability in developing economies. This study employed hydrogeochemical analysis, geospatial analysis, and groundwater quality index to assess hydrogeochemical processes and quality of groundwater in the Komadugu-Yobe basin. The pH, total dissolved [...] Read more.
The assessment of hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality is crucial for environmental sustainability in developing economies. This study employed hydrogeochemical analysis, geospatial analysis, and groundwater quality index to assess hydrogeochemical processes and quality of groundwater in the Komadugu-Yobe basin. The pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity (EC) were assessed in situ using a handheld portable electrical conductivity meter. The concentrations of the major cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+), were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The major anions (chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were analyzed via ion chromatography (IC). Total alkalinity and bicarbonate were measured in situ using a HACH digital alkalinity kit by the titrimetric method. Hydrochemical results indicate some physicochemical properties of the groundwater samples exceeded the maximum permissible limits as recommended by the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water. Gibbs diagrams indicate rock–water interaction/rock weathering processes are the dominant mechanisms influencing the groundwater chemistry. Groundwater is predominantly Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 water type, constituting 59% of the groundwater samples analyzed. The groundwater quality index (GWQI) depicted 63 and 27% of the groundwater samples as excellent and good water types for drinking purposes, respectively. This study further relates the interaction between geology, hydrochemical characteristics, and groundwater quality parameters. The results are essential to inform a sustainable management strategy and protection of groundwater resources. Full article
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19 pages, 14003 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Age and Origin and Its Relation with Anthropogenic and Climatic Factors
by Usman Iqbal, Ghulam Nabi, Mudassar Iqbal, Muhammad Masood, Abu Bakar Arshed, Muhammad Saifullah and Muhammad Shahid
Water 2024, 16(2), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020287 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Groundwater plays a major role in addressing the worldwide problem of water scarcity and food security. With a growing population and increasing urbanization, there is a rising demand for groundwater to meet agricultural and domestic water needs. A variety of advanced approaches are [...] Read more.
Groundwater plays a major role in addressing the worldwide problem of water scarcity and food security. With a growing population and increasing urbanization, there is a rising demand for groundwater to meet agricultural and domestic water needs. A variety of advanced approaches are necessary to sustain groundwater management. This study investigated the age and origin of groundwater, as well as its relationship with anthropogenic and climatic factors. Stable isotopes were used, namely oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) for the estimation of groundwater origin and radioactive isotopes of Tritium (3H) for the estimation of its age. The investigation of stable isotopes revealed that the aquifer is predominantly influenced by river water, with a minor contribution from rainwater. Furthermore, the analysis of radioactive isotopes revealed that the groundwater age ranges from 5 to 50 years old in most areas. Older groundwater is predominantly found in urban areas, while younger groundwater is present in agricultural and woodland regions. However, the presence of “old” water in the upper groundwater layers in urban areas is attributed to over-abstraction and limited natural recharge. The primary climatic factor that governs the age and origin of groundwater is rainfall upstream of the study area, which directly contributes to the river flows. The rainfall is high in the east but, due to urbanization, recharge is decreased. Consequently, old and river recharge groundwater is found in this area. These observations underscore the unsustainable and alarming use of groundwater in urban areas. Full article
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0 pages, 5823 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modeling of Groundwater Dynamics and Management Strategies for the Sustainable Groundwater Development in Water-Scarce Agricultural Region of Punjab, Pakistan
by Abdul Raheem, Ijaz Ahmad, Arfan Arshad, Jinping Liu, Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shafeeque, Md Masudur Rahman, Muhammad Saifullah and Umar Iqbal
Water 2024, 16(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010034 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Focusing on the Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) command area, characterized by its heavy reliance on agriculture, this study addresses the critical issue of groundwater table fluctuations in response to diverse pumping scenarios. Herein, we comprehensively evaluated the dynamic interplay between crop water [...] Read more.
Focusing on the Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) command area, characterized by its heavy reliance on agriculture, this study addresses the critical issue of groundwater table fluctuations in response to diverse pumping scenarios. Herein, we comprehensively evaluated the dynamic interplay between crop water requirements and groundwater pumping within the expansive canvas of the LBDC, which is facing water shortages. Using the Penman–Monteith equation, we calculated annual average evapotranspiration for major crops—wheat, maize, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Three-dimensional MODFLOW-based numerical modeling was used to analyze the dynamics of groundwater regimes. MODFLOW was calibrated from 2010 to 2020. Thereafter, we simulated water table changes under a 20% increase and decrease in groundwater extraction up to 2040s. Results revealed significant variations in water demands among these crops, with sugarcane requiring the highest average annual evapotranspiration at 1281 mm. Spatiotemporal analysis revealed substantial declines in the water table in the tail-end command areas, particularly Sahiwal and Khanewal where the decline was 0.55 m/year between 2010 and 2020. The upper reaches, such as Balloki and Okara, experienced milder declines. In considering management scenarios, a 20% increase in groundwater extraction up to September 2040 was projected to raise pumping to 4650 MCM/year. and decrease the net water balance to −235 MCM/year. Alternatively, a 20% decrease in groundwater extraction up to September 2040 could reduce pumping to 4125 MCM/year and increase the net water balance to 291 MCM/year. This study sheds light on major crop water requirements, spatiotemporal groundwater dynamics, and the implications of groundwater extraction in the LBDC command area. Scenarios presented here, encompassing increased and decreased groundwater extraction, offer invaluable guidance for policymakers and stakeholders seeking a balance between agricultural productivity and long-term groundwater sustainability. Full article
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12 pages, 2586 KiB  
Brief Report
Tourism-Related Pressure on the Freshwater Lens of the Small Coral Island Gili Air, Indonesia
by Jarrid M. P. Tschaikowski, Doni P. E. Putra, Atas Pracoyo and Nils Moosdorf
Water 2024, 16(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020237 - 10 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Tourism on Gili Air, a small coral island in Indonesia, has increased significantly. Groundwater is the primary water source on the island. This study aims to estimate the sustainability of groundwater use on this small coral island. It conducts an initial assessment of [...] Read more.
Tourism on Gili Air, a small coral island in Indonesia, has increased significantly. Groundwater is the primary water source on the island. This study aims to estimate the sustainability of groundwater use on this small coral island. It conducts an initial assessment of the freshwater lens system using cost-effective methods to evaluate the available freshwater volume and sustainability of water withdrawals related to tourism. The results and methods can be transferred to other low-lying islands. The results show that Gili Air has a well-developed freshwater lens, estimated to contain 2 million cubic meters of water, with an annual recharge rate four times higher than the water demand of the island’s inhabitants. However, our findings suggest that the rapid increase in tourism resulted in unsustainable water withdrawals between 2016 and 2019. Without proper groundwater monitoring and management, this could lead to seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Full article
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