Special Issue "Public Health Issues of Recreational Waters: Perspectives for Innovation and Advanced Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and One Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Romano Spica
Website
Guest Editor
Public Health Unit, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome 00135, Italy
Interests: recreational waters; disinfection; surveillance; monitoring; hygiene; public health; biotechnology; innovation; swimming pool; SPA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recreational use of waters represents a technological challenge for hygiene and an opportunity for promoting health by providing safe aquatic environments for sport, rehabilitation, adapted physical activities, and wellness. Public health issues focus on water managing and surveillance not only at the pool level but also along all the pipeline plant in buildings or associated facilities, including those based on the use of coastal/fresh or SPA waters. Innovation plays a major role in handling, monitoring, treating water through the development, improvement or evaluation of novel methods, devices, procedures, strategies, or guidelines to improve the quality and safety of water.

Technical advancements show intensive progress within a very multidisciplinary frame where several types of expertise interact, such as hygiene, medicine, biology, chemistry, engineering, physics, informatics, and epidemiology.

This Special Issue seeks papers from different disciplines to collect advancements in the field, both technological and scientific contributes. It welcomes new or improved strategies for water treatment (e.g., filtration, disinfection, flocculation), management (e.g., procedures, devices, novel materials, software), surveillance (e.g., novel markers, molecular monitoring or fast methods) as well as other approaches aimed to enhance water safety and quality.

This Special Issue aims to represent a reference for sharing achievements and proposing perspectives on innovation in managing water for recreational uses, in indoor or outdoor facilities for sport, playtime, rehabilitation, health, and wellness.

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Romano Spica
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Recreational waters
  • water treatment
  • biofilm
  • disinfection
  • hygiene
  • surveillance
  • water safety plan
  • water management
  • innovation
  • software
  • public health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Free and Combined Chlorine Concentrations in Swimming Pool Water and an Attempt to Determine a Reliable Water Sampling Point
Water 2020, 12(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020311 - 21 Jan 2020
Abstract
The analysis of free chlorine concentrations in swimming pool water makes it possible to assess the antiseptic effect of the disinfectant. The concentration of combined chlorine determines the comfort of swimming and indicates if there is a threat from DBP (disinfection by-products). The [...] Read more.
The analysis of free chlorine concentrations in swimming pool water makes it possible to assess the antiseptic effect of the disinfectant. The concentration of combined chlorine determines the comfort of swimming and indicates if there is a threat from DBP (disinfection by-products). The distribution of free and combined chlorine concentration was analyzed in four basins differing in seasonality of use and in the applied water flow systems. After considering the distribution of free and combined chlorine content in characteristic points of pools, an attempt was made to determine the most reliable point for assessing the quality of water and its suitability for swimming. Such searches should aim to identify the places with the worst water quality. The most uniform distribution of the concentrations of both free and combined chlorine was observed at the middle point of swimming pools, while at points near the corners and walls of swimming pools a varied distribution was observed. Such a control strategy, based on the least favorable test results at a point considered as characteristic, would make it possible to verify the parameters of the swimming pool water treatment system and thus minimize the risk to swimmers’ health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biosensors in Monitoring Water Quality and Safety: An Example of a Miniaturizable Whole-Cell Based Sensor for Hg2+ Optical Detection in Water
Water 2019, 11(10), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101986 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) pollution of water reserves, especially drinking water, is an important issue in the environmental and public health field. Mercury is reported to be one of the most dangerous elements in nature since its accumulation and ingestion can lead [...] Read more.
Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) pollution of water reserves, especially drinking water, is an important issue in the environmental and public health field. Mercury is reported to be one of the most dangerous elements in nature since its accumulation and ingestion can lead to a series of permanent human diseases, affecting the kidneys and central nervous system. All the conventional approaches for assaying Hg2+ have some limitations in terms of bulky instruments and the cost and time required for the analysis. Here, we describe a miniaturizable and high-throughput bioluminescence sensor for Hg2+ detection in water, which combines the specificity of a living bacterial Hg2+ reporter cell, used as sensing element, with the performance of a silicon photomultiplier, used as optical detector. The proposed system paves the basis for portable analysis and low reactants consumption. The aim of the work is to propose a sensing strategy for total inorganic mercury evaluation in water. The proposed system can lay the basis for further studies and validations in order to develop rapid and portable technology that can be used in situ providing remote monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of Cyanuric Acid on Bather’s Risk of Gastrointestinal Illness at Swimming Pools
Water 2019, 11(6), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061314 - 25 Jun 2019
Abstract
Current regulatory codes for swimming pool disinfection separately regulate free chlorine (FC) and cyanuric acid (CYA). It is well-known that CYA affects disinfection rates by reversibly binding to FC in aqueous solutions. However, limits for these regulated parameters have neither systematically accounted for [...] Read more.
Current regulatory codes for swimming pool disinfection separately regulate free chlorine (FC) and cyanuric acid (CYA). It is well-known that CYA affects disinfection rates by reversibly binding to FC in aqueous solutions. However, limits for these regulated parameters have neither systematically accounted for this chemistry nor been based on the risk of gastrointestinal illness. This study was intended to determine the minimum concentration of FC relative to CYA based on the risk of gastrointestinal illness from normal fecal sloughing of selected pathogens and to find a simple regulatory rule for jointly managing FC and CYA for consistent disinfection. Literature data on CYA’s effect on microbial inactivation rates were reanalyzed based on the equilibria governing hypochlorous acid (HOCl) concentration. A model was developed that considers the rates of pathogen introduction into pool water, disinfection, turbulent diffusive transport, and pathogen uptake by swimmers to calculate the associated risk of illness. Model results were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) untreated recreational water acceptable gastrointestinal illness risk. For Cryptosporidium, correlation between log inactivation and Chick–Watson Ct was far better when C refers to HOCl concentration than to FC (r = −0.96 vs. −0.06). The HOCl concentration had a small variation (± 1.8%) at a constant CYA/FC ratio for typical FC and CYA ranges in swimming pools. In 27 U.S. states, the allowed FC and CYA results in HOCl concentrations spanning more than a factor of 500. Using conservative values for a high bather load pool with 2 mg/L FC and 90 mg/L CYA, the model predicted a 0.071 annual probability of infection for Giardia, exceeding the EPA regulatory 0.036 limit for untreated recreational waters. FC and CYA concentrations in swimming pools should be jointly regulated as a ratio. We recommend a maximum CYA/FC ratio of 20. Full article
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