Special Issue "Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 12496

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hucai Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Ecological Research and Pollution Control of Plateau Lakes, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
Interests: lake sediments and environment change; paleoclimate and global changes; absolute dating (AMS-14C, OSL); lake ecology and water security; anthropology-paleontology and climate changes; stable isotopes and geochemistry
Prof. Dr. Jingan Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002, China
Interests: water environment and security; lake eutrophication; sediment pollution and control; biogeochemical cycles of nutrients; isotope geochemistry
Prof. Dr. G.D. Haffner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Canada Research Chair/Professor, Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
Interests: aquatic ecology; developing models of energy/carbon and contaminant dynamics; speciation in Ancient lakes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lakes, together with rivers and subterranean aquifers, are indispensable natural resources for humans and other organisms. Lakes not only play a crucial role in water supply, food production and climate regulation, they also function as a cornerstone for socio-economic susceptible development.

During the last century, anthropogenic climate changes, especially seasonal climate alternations, intensified widespread use of agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers and pesticides), and rapidly increasing urbanization have dramatically changed regional watershed and hydrological patterns, exerting excessive pressure on lacustrine ecosystems.

Harmful algal blooms affect ecosystem productivity and public health globally and the costs are high. For example, during the last few years, the equivalent of tens of billions of US dollars have been allocated by the Chinese government to mitigate eutrophication of lakes. In Yunnan Province in southwestern China, conservation and pollution control of the so-called Nine Large Lakes (>30 km2) alone has cost more than 1.16 billion RMB Yuan (~180 million US dollars) during the last decade, but the situation is still serious.

It is necessary to consolidate a comprehensive understanding of the drivers of eutrophication on individual to regional clusters of lakes because lake status varies depending upon location, depth, area, agricultural and industrial intensity, and trophic status. This is our goal to organize this special issue published by the journal WATER, which has a global readership on the topic of eutrophication and water resource management.

Prof. Dr. Hucai Zhang
Prof. Dr. Jingan Chen
Prof. Dr. G.D. Haffner
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • eutrophication
  • lakes and reservoirs
  • water resource management
  • water quality
  • harmful algae
  • sustainable devleopment
  • multiple stressors

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges
Water 2023, 15(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020337 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The continuous and widespread deterioration of lake water quality and eutrophication is not only a local problem, but also a global phenomenon [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
Editorial
Lake Management and Eutrophication Mitigation: Coming down to Earth—In Situ Monitoring, Scientific Management and Well-Organized Collaboration Are Still Crucial
Water 2022, 14(18), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182878 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
Lakes, together with rivers and subterranean aquifers, are indispensable natural resources for humans and other organisms [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Research

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Article
Seasonal Variation in the Water Quality and Eutrophication of Lake Xingyun in Southwestern China
Water 2022, 14(22), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223677 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
It is crucial to understand the spatial-temporal variation of water quality for the water safety and eutrophication migration in plateau lakes. To identify the variation property and the main causes of eutrophication and continuous water quality deterioration, the water quality, including the water [...] Read more.
It is crucial to understand the spatial-temporal variation of water quality for the water safety and eutrophication migration in plateau lakes. To identify the variation property and the main causes of eutrophication and continuous water quality deterioration, the water quality, including the water temperature (WT), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, Chl-a, turbidity, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), of Lake Xingyun was monitored from 2016 to 2021, and their spatial and temporal distribution characteristics were analyzed. The results show that there is no obvious thermal stratification in the vertical direction; pH and DO decrease with depth, which is caused by both physical and biochemical processes, especially at the bottom of Lake Xingyun, which has an anaerobic environment. The chlorophyll content was higher during the high-flow periods and varied significantly in the vertical direction; the spatial variation of water quality in Lake Xingyun was more obvious in the low-flow period and alkaline throughout the year. The average content of total phosphorus (TP) ranged between 0.33 and 0.53 mg/L during the high-flow periods and between 0.22 and 0.51 mg/L during the low-flow periods, while the average content of total nitrogen (TN) ranged between 1.92 and 2.62 mg/L and 1.36 and 2.53 mg/L during the high- and low-flow periods, respectively. The analysis of the inflow samples shows that exogenous nitrogen and phosphorus is the main pollution source affecting the nitrogen and phosphorus content of Lake Xingyun. The trophic level index (TLI) shows that Lake Xingyun is in eutrophication all year round, and even in areas less affected by the exogenous nutrient, there are still conditions for cyanobacterial blooms. This study shed new light on the water quality, eutrophication status and changes in Lake Xingyun, providing suggestions for controlling lake pollution and eutrophication mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Nutrient Elements and Heavy Metals in Surface Water of Tibet, China and Their Pollution Assessment
Water 2022, 14(22), 3664; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223664 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 523
Abstract
In the context of global climate change, the ecological environment of Tibet has been gaining attention given its unique geographical and fragile nature. In this study, to understand the pollution status of the surface water of Tibet, China, we collected monthly data of [...] Read more.
In the context of global climate change, the ecological environment of Tibet has been gaining attention given its unique geographical and fragile nature. In this study, to understand the pollution status of the surface water of Tibet, China, we collected monthly data of 12 indicators from 41 cross-sectional monitoring sites in 2021 and analyzed the spatial and temporal variations of nutrients and heavy metal elements, water quality conditions, and pollutant sources in surface water. All 12 polluting elements, except lead (Pb), had significant seasonal variations, but the magnitude of the differences was very small. Spatially, nutrient elements were relatively concentrated in the agricultural and pastoral development areas in central and northern Tibet. In general, the water quality in most parts of Tibet was found to be good, and the water quality of 41 monitoring sections belonged to Class I water standard as per the entropy method–fuzzy evaluation method. The study used a multivariate statistical method to analyze the sources of pollution factors. The principal component analysis method identified four principal components. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for pollution prevention and control in the Tibet Autonomous Region, and contribute to further research on water ecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Changes in Water Quality Parameters and the Eutrophication in Lake Erhai of Southwest China
Water 2022, 14(21), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213398 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
To understand the lake status and reasons of eutrophication at Lake Erhai in recent years, water quality, including water temperature (T), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from 2016 to 2020 was monitored and analyzed. The [...] Read more.
To understand the lake status and reasons of eutrophication at Lake Erhai in recent years, water quality, including water temperature (T), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from 2016 to 2020 was monitored and analyzed. The results showed no obvious thermocline in the vertical direction at Lake Erhai, while Chl-a demonstrated obvious spatiotemporal distribution characteristics in Lake Erhai. Chl-a concentrations increased to a maximum in summer in August with the low TN:TP value, leading to algal blooms, most notably in the southern lakes. Low pH and DO appeared due to the thermocline of Erhai Lake (August 2016). A large area of algae distribution due to the increase of total phosphorus appeared in the northern lake area of Lake Erhai in December 2016, with a tendency of mesotrophic to light eutrophic in summer by the nutritional evaluation of Lake Erhai, especially in the central lake area and the northern lake area. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and principal component analysis showed a significant positive correlation between Chl-a and T (r = 0.34, p ≤ 0.01) and TP (r = 0.31 p ≤ 0.01) in the mesotrophic Lake Erhai, indicating that TP content was one of the triggering factors for the algal blooming. Based on the spatiotemporal changes in water quality parameters and their relationship with eutrophication, scientific agencies should implement management strategies to protect Lake Erhai, supplemental to the costly engineering measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Seasonal Water Quality Changes and the Eutrophication of Lake Yilong in Southwest China
Water 2022, 14(21), 3385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213385 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
To better understand the seasonal variation characteristics and trend of water quality in Lake Yilong, we monitored water quality parameters and measured nutrients, including the water temperature (WT), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH from September 2016 to May 2020, total nitrogen [...] Read more.
To better understand the seasonal variation characteristics and trend of water quality in Lake Yilong, we monitored water quality parameters and measured nutrients, including the water temperature (WT), Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH from September 2016 to May 2020, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from October 2016 to August 2018. The results showed that the lake water was well mixed, resulting in no significant thermal stratification. The DO content was decreased in the northwest part of the lake during September and October, resulting in a hypoxic condition. It also varied at different locations of the lake and showed a high heterogeneity and seasonal variability. The Chl-a concentration in Lake Yilong demonstrated seasonal and spatial changes. It was maximum at the center and southwest area of the lake in January. However, in the northwest part of the lake, the maximum value appeared in September and October. The content of TN in the rainy season increased by 75% compared with that in dry season and TP content show a downward trend (from 0.11 mg/L to 0.05 mg/L). The comprehensive nutrition index evaluation shows that the water quality of Lake Yilong in 2016 was middle eutrophic (TLI = 60.56), and that in 2017 (TLI = 56.05) and 2018 (TLI = 56.38) was weak eutrophic, showing that the nutritional status has improved. TN remained at a high level (2.15 ± 0.48 mg/L), water quality needs further improvement. Based on our monitoring and analysis, it is recommended that human activities in the watershed of the lake should be constrained and managed carefully to maintain the water quality of the lake and adopt effective water quality protection and ecological restoration strategies and measures to promote continuous improvement of water quality, for a sustainable social development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Effects of Seasonal Variation on Water Quality Parameters and Eutrophication in Lake Yangzong
Water 2022, 14(17), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172732 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Understanding the seasonal variation characteristics and trends in water quality is one of the most important aspects for protecting and conserving lakes. Lake Yangzong water quality parameters and nutrients, including water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, Chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, total nitrogen [...] Read more.
Understanding the seasonal variation characteristics and trends in water quality is one of the most important aspects for protecting and conserving lakes. Lake Yangzong water quality parameters and nutrients, including water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, Chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were monitored in different seasons from 2015 to 2021. Based on the monitoring data, the temporal and spatial variations of various parameters were analyzed. The results showed that Lake Yangzong is a warm monomictic lake. The Pearson correlation coefficient and correlation analysis showed water quality parameters were significantly correlated and probably affected by temperature. Cyanobacteria were at risk of blooming in spring and autumn. The contents of TN and TP in winter were significantly higher than in summer, especially TN, with both reaching a peak at the epilimnion and hypolimnion in December 2020 (TN = 1.3 mg/L, TP = 0.06 mg/L). We also observed a dual risk of endogenous release and exogenous input. Therefore, strengthening the supervision for controlling eutrophication caused by human activities and endogenous release is urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Nutrient Thresholds Required to Control Eutrophication: Does It Work for Natural Alkaline Lakes?
Water 2022, 14(17), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172674 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
The responses of phytoplankton to nutrients vary for different natural bodies of water, which can finally affect the occurrence of phytoplankton bloom. However, the effect of high alkalinity characteristic on the nutrient thresholds of natural alkaline lake is rarely considered. Bioassay experiments were [...] Read more.
The responses of phytoplankton to nutrients vary for different natural bodies of water, which can finally affect the occurrence of phytoplankton bloom. However, the effect of high alkalinity characteristic on the nutrient thresholds of natural alkaline lake is rarely considered. Bioassay experiments were conducted to investigate the nutrient thresholds and the responses of phytoplankton growth to nutrients for the closed plateau Chenghai Lake, Southwest China, which has a high pH background of up to 9.66. The growth of the phytoplankton community was restricted by phosphorus without obvious correlation with the input of nitrogen sources. This can be explained by the nitrogen fixation function of cyanobacteria, which can meet their growth needs for nitrogen. In addition, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) could be utilized more efficiently than ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) for the phytoplankton in Chenghai Lake. Interestingly, the eutrophication thresholds of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), NH4-N, and NO3-N should be targeted at below 0.05 mg/L, 0.30 mg/L, and 0.50 mg/L, respectively, which are higher than the usual standards for eutrophication. This can be explained by the inhibition effect of the high pH background on phytoplankton growth due to the damage to phytoplankton cells. Therefore, the prevention of phytoplankton blooms should be considered from not only the aspect of reducing nutrient input, especially phosphorus input, but also maintaining the high alkalinity characteristic in natural alkaline lake, which was formed due to the geological background of saline-alkali soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Release of Endogenous Nutrients Drives the Transformation of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in the Shallow Plateau of Lake Jian in Southwestern China
Water 2022, 14(17), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172624 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Eutrophication remediation is an ongoing priority for protecting aquatic ecosystems, especially in plateau lakes with fragile ecologies and special tectonic environments. However, current strategies to control the phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) levels in eutrophication sites have been mainly guided by laboratory experiments [...] Read more.
Eutrophication remediation is an ongoing priority for protecting aquatic ecosystems, especially in plateau lakes with fragile ecologies and special tectonic environments. However, current strategies to control the phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) levels in eutrophication sites have been mainly guided by laboratory experiments or literature reviews without in-field analyses of the geochemical processes associated with the hydrological and eutrophic characteristics of lakes. This study analyzed the water quality parameters of 50 sites at Lake Jian in May 2019, a moderate eutrophication shallow plateau lake, based on dissolved/sedimentary nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter, grain size, C/N ratios and stable isotope ratios of δ13C or δ15N in sediments. The results showed that the average total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the lake water were 0.57 mg/L and 0.071 mg/L, respectively. The TN and TP contents of surface sediment ranged from 2.15 to 9.55 g/kg and 0.76 to 1.74 g/kg, respectively. Stable isotope and grain source analysis indicated that N in sediments mainly existed in organic matter form and P mainly occurred as inorganic mineral adsorption. Endogenous pollution contributed to >20% of TN. Furthermore, our findings showed that phosphorus was the nutrient that limited eutrophication at Lake Jian, unlike other eutrophic shallow lakes. In contrast, the nutrient levels in the sediment and input streams belonged entirely to the N-limitation state. The distinctness in release intensity of N and P could modify the N/P limitation in the lake, which affects algae growth and nutrient control. These results demonstrated that reducing exogenous nutrients might not effectively mitigate lake eutrophication due to their endogenous recycling; thus, detailed nutrient monitoring is needed to preserve aquatic ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Seasonal Variations in Water Quality and Algal Blooming in Hypereutrophic Lake Qilu of Southwestern China
Water 2022, 14(17), 2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172611 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Understanding the spatiotemporal distributions and variation characteristics of water quality parameters is crucial for ecosystem restoration and management of lakes, in particular, Lake Qilu (QL), a typical plateau shallow lake on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwestern China. To identify the main causes of harmful [...] Read more.
Understanding the spatiotemporal distributions and variation characteristics of water quality parameters is crucial for ecosystem restoration and management of lakes, in particular, Lake Qilu (QL), a typical plateau shallow lake on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwestern China. To identify the main causes of harmful algal blooming and continuous water quality decline, the total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), water temperature (WT), dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), pH, and turbidity in hypereutrophic Lake Qilu from January 2017 to December 2021 were analyzed. The results showed a complex pattern in spatiotemporal distribution and variation. WT showed no significant change in the vertical profile. DO and pH value variations were caused by both physical and biochemical processes, especially at the bottom of Lake QL with an anaerobic environment. The Trophic State Index (TSI) assessment results showed that Lake QL is a eutrophic (70.14% of all samples, 50 < TSI < 70) to a hypereutrophic lake (29.86%, 70 < TSI) with poor water quality (WQI < 25). TP and WT were the main factors controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs) based on the statistical analysis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Random Forest Model (RFM), and Correlation Analysis (CA). In lake QL, TP loading reduction and water level increase might be the key strategies for treating HABs in the future. Based on our results, reducing TP loading may be more effective than reducing TN to prevent HABs in the highly eutrophicated Lake Qilu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Seasonal Stratification Characteristics of Vertical Profiles and Water Quality of Lake Lugu in Southwest China
Water 2022, 14(16), 2554; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162554 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
According to the vertical section monitoring data of Lake Lugu water temperature (WT), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) parameters in January (winter), April (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn) in 2015, the vertical stratification structure [...] Read more.
According to the vertical section monitoring data of Lake Lugu water temperature (WT), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) parameters in January (winter), April (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn) in 2015, the vertical stratification structure of WT and the null seasonality of water chemistry were analyzed. The relationship between the seasonal variation of WT stratification and the spatial and temporal distribution of EC, pH, DO and Chl-a was explored. The relationship between EC and WT was found for the epilimnion, thermocline and hypolimnion. The results of the study showed that: (1) The Lake Lugu water body shows obvious thermal stratification in spring, summer and autumn. In winter, the WT is close to isothermal condition in the vertical direction; in summer, the thermocline is located at 10–25 m water depth; while in autumn, the thermocline moves down to 20–30 m. (2) The Hypolimnion WT was maintained at 9.5 °C~10 °C, which is consistent with the annual mean temperature of Lake Lugu, indicating that the hypolimnion water column is stable and relatively constant, and reflects the annual mean temperature of the lake. The thermally stratified structure has some influence on the changes of EC, DO, pH and Chl-a, resulting in the obvious stratification of EC, DO and pH in the water body. (3) Especially in summer, when the temperature increased, the thermal stratification phenomenon was significant, and DO and pH peaked in thermocline, with a decreasing trend from the peak upward and downward, and the hypolimnion was in an anoxic state and the pH value was small. Although chlorophyll a remained low below thermocline and was not high overall, there was a sudden increase in the surface layer, which should be highly warned to prevent a large algal bloom or even a localized outbreak in Lake Lugu. (4) There is a simple linear function between EC and WT in both vertical section and Epilimnion, thermocline and hypolimnion, which proves that Lake Lugu is still influenced by natural climate and maintains natural water state, and is a typical warm single mixed type of lake. (5) It is suggested to strengthen water quality monitoring, grasp its change pattern and influence factors, and take scientific measures to prevent huge pressure on the closed ecological environment of Lake Lugu, and provide scientific basis for the protection of high-quality freshwater lakes in the plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Influence of Cascade Hydropower Development on Water Quality in the Middle Jinsha River on the Upper Reach of the Yangtze River
Water 2022, 14(12), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121943 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
In recent decades, there has been unprecedented development of hydropower in China, especially in the Yangtze River Basin, which has changed the hydrological and hydraulic conditions of natural rivers and has an impact on water quality. However, the spatial-–temporal extent, factors, and the [...] Read more.
In recent decades, there has been unprecedented development of hydropower in China, especially in the Yangtze River Basin, which has changed the hydrological and hydraulic conditions of natural rivers and has an impact on water quality. However, the spatial-–temporal extent, factors, and the reasons behind the influence of cascade hydropower development are not clear. The six hydropower stations on the main course of the middle reach of the Jinsha River in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces have been in joint operation for seven years, and the impact of cascade hydropower development on water quality has begun to appear. In this paper, in order to accurately determine the causal relationship between cascade hydropower development and water quality changes on the middle reaches of the Jinsha River and their trends using regression discontinuity analysis, we collected monitoring data on water quality from 2004 to 2019. The results show that cascade hydropower development on the middle reach of the Jinsha River led to a decrease in TP concentration in that section of the river and an increase in the concentration of CODMn and NH3-N. Furthermore, increase in sedimentation following the impoundment of cascade hydropower development is the main reason for the decrease in TP concentration, and the regional economic and social development driven by cascade hydropower development are external sources of the increase in the concentration of CODMn and NH3-N. In addition, influenced by rainfall, the concentrations of CODMn and TP are higher in the rainy season and lower in the dry season, which is directly related to the input of non-point-source pollutants in the basin during the former. This study established a model to accurately judge the causal relationship between cascade hydropower development and water quality changes in the basin, which was then used to assess the impact of cascade hydropower development on water quality. Our results provide a basis for the formulation and implementation of a water quality protection plan for the middle reach of the Jinsha River and can also provide a basis for the development of cascade hydropower in other river basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Effect of Ecosystem Degradation on the Source of Particulate Organic Matter in a Karst Lake: A Case Study of the Caohai Lake, China
Water 2022, 14(12), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121867 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The cycle of biogenic elements in lakes is intimately linked with particulate organic matter (POM), which plays a critical role in ecosystem restoration and the control of eutrophication. However, little is known regarding the functionality of ecosystem degradation on the source of POM [...] Read more.
The cycle of biogenic elements in lakes is intimately linked with particulate organic matter (POM), which plays a critical role in ecosystem restoration and the control of eutrophication. However, little is known regarding the functionality of ecosystem degradation on the source of POM in the water of a karst lake. To fill this knowledge gap, herein we compared the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of POM prior to and after ecosystem degradation in the karst lake Caohai Lake, located in the southwest of China, and analyzed the source of POM using a combination of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C–δ15N). Our results showed that the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH values decreased, and the concentrations of POM in water increased by 11% and 31% in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The decrease in the δ13C value of POM was accompanied by the increase in the δ15N value of POM in the water of Caohai lake. Prior to the ecosystem’s degradation, sediment resuspension (28%) and submerged macrophytes (33%) were the dominant sources of POM in lake water. In contrast, sediment resuspension (51%) was the major source of POM after the ecosystem’s degradation. Environmental factors, including DO, turbidity, water depth, and water temperature, that are related to photosynthesis and sediment resuspension are the main factors controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of POM. The resuspension of sediment reduced the transparency of the water, limiting effective photosynthesis, impeding the survival of submerged macrophytes, and, consequently, deteriorating the ecosystem. We propose that the control of sediment resuspension is important for improving the water transparency that creates an appropriate habitat for the restoration of the submerged macrophyte community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Synergistic Effects and Ecological Responses of Combined In Situ Passivation and Macrophytes toward the Water Quality of a Macrophytes-Dominated Eutrophic Lake
Water 2022, 14(12), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121847 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Combined use of in situ passivation and macrophytes is a valuable technology that exerts remarkable effects on aquatic systems. However, the effectiveness and ecological functions of this combined technology for macrophytes-dominated eutrophic (MDE) lakes with organophosphorus-controlled internal phosphorus (P) loading were poorly understood. [...] Read more.
Combined use of in situ passivation and macrophytes is a valuable technology that exerts remarkable effects on aquatic systems. However, the effectiveness and ecological functions of this combined technology for macrophytes-dominated eutrophic (MDE) lakes with organophosphorus-controlled internal phosphorus (P) loading were poorly understood. In this study, aquatic simulation experiments were performed to study the combination of La-modified materials (LMM; La-modified bentonite (LMB), and La/Al co-modified attapulgite (LAA)) with macrophytes (Myriophyllum verticillatum L. (MVL), Hydrilla verticillata (Linn. f.) royle (HVR), and Ceratophyllum demersum L. (CDL)) for the control of P mobility in the water column, and to investigate the passivator effects on the physiological characteristics of macrophytes. The mineralization of organophosphates (BD−Po, HCl−Po, and Res−Po) is an important factor for maintaining high internal P loadings and overlying water P concentrations in the experiments. Compared with individual treatment groups, the reduction of internal P release flux and porewater SRP concentrations was more obvious in the combined treatments. Moreover, the redox-sensitive P forms transformation is more pronounced in the surface sediments. In the LAA+M group, internal P release flux was reduced by 55% and 55% compared with individual passivators and macrophytes retreatment groups, respectively. In contrast, the LMB+M group decreased by 16% and 46%, respectively. Simultaneously, LMM had less effect on macrophytes traits compared with individual macrophytes group and enhanced the absorption of phosphate by macrophytes. The phosphate content of macrophytes in the LAA+M and LMB+M groups increased by 24% and 11%, respectively, in comparison with the individual macrophytes group. Results concluded that the combination of passivator and macrophytes enhanced the effect of ecological restoration and exerts a synergistic effect on internal P pollution with macrophytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Seasonal Variation and Spatial Heterogeneity of Water Quality Parameters in Lake Chenghai in Southwestern China
Water 2022, 14(10), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101640 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Seasonal dynamics and the vertical stratification of multiple parameters, including water temperature (WT), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), were analyzed in Lake Chenghai, Northern Yunnan, based on monitoring data collected in 2015 (October), 2016 (March, May, July), 2017 [...] Read more.
Seasonal dynamics and the vertical stratification of multiple parameters, including water temperature (WT), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), were analyzed in Lake Chenghai, Northern Yunnan, based on monitoring data collected in 2015 (October), 2016 (March, May, July), 2017 (March, June, October), 2018 (August), and 2020 (June, November). The results indicate that the lake water was well mixed in winter and spring when the water quality was stable. However, when WT becomes stratified in summer and autumn, the Chl-a content and pH value changed substantially, along with the vertical movement of the thermocline. With rising temperature, the position of the stratified DO layer became higher than the thermocline, leading to a thickening of the water body with a low DO content. This process induced the release of nutrients from lake sediments and promoted eutrophication and cyanobacteria bloom. The thermal stratification structure had some influence on changes in DO, pH, and Chl-a, resulting in the obvious stratification of DO and pH. In summer, with an increase in temperature, thermal stratification was significant. DO and pH achieved peak values in the thermocline, and exhibited a decreasing trend from this peak, both upward and downward. The thermocline was anoxic and the pH value was low. Although Chl-a maintained a low level below the thermocline and was not high, there was a sudden increase in the surface layer, which should be urgently monitored to prevent large-scale algae reproduction and even local outbreaks in Lake Chenghai. Moreover, Lake Chenghai is deeper in the north and shallower in the south: this fact, together with the stronger wind–wave disturbance in the south, results in surface WT in the south being lower than that in the north year-round. This situation results in a gradual diminution of aquatic plants from north to south. Water quality in the lake’s southern extent is better than that in the north, exhibiting obvious spatial heterogeneity. It is recommended that lake water quality monitoring should be strengthened to more fully understand lake water quality and take steps to prevent further deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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Article
Tributary Loadings and Their Impacts on Water Quality of Lake Xingyun, a Plateau Lake in Southwest China
Water 2022, 14(8), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081281 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Lake Xingyun is a hypertrophic shallow lake on the Yunnan Plateau of China. Its water quality (WQ) has degraded severely during the past three decades with catchment development. To better understand the external nutrient loading impacts on WQ, we measured nutrient concentrations in [...] Read more.
Lake Xingyun is a hypertrophic shallow lake on the Yunnan Plateau of China. Its water quality (WQ) has degraded severely during the past three decades with catchment development. To better understand the external nutrient loading impacts on WQ, we measured nutrient concentrations in the main tributaries during January 2010–April 2018 and modelled the monthly volume of all the tributaries for the same period. The results show annual inputs of total nitrogen (TN) had higher variability than total phosphorus (TP). The multi-year average load was 183.8 t/year for TN and 23.3 t/year for TP during 2010–2017. The average TN and TP loads for 2010–2017 were 36.6% higher and 63.8% lower, respectively, compared with observations in 1999. The seasonal patterns of TN and TP external loading showed some similarity, with the highest loading during the wet season and the lowest during the dry season. Loads in spring, summer, autumn, winter, and the wet season (May–October) accounted for 14.2%, 48.8%, 30.3%, 6.7%, and 84.9% of the annual TN load and 14.1%, 49.8%, 28.1%, 8%, and 84.0% of the annual TP load during 2010–2017. In-lake TN and TP concentrations followed a pattern similar to the external loading. The poor correlation between in-lake nutrient concentrations and tributary nutrient inputs at monthly and annual time scales suggests both external loading and internal loading were contributing to the lake eutrophication. Although effective lake restoration will require reducing nutrient losses from catchment agriculture, there may be a need to address a reduction of internal loads through sediment dredging or capping, geochemical engineering, or other effective measures. In addition, the method of producing monthly tributary inflows based on rainfall data in this paper might be useful for estimating runoff at other lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plateau Lake Water Quality and Eutrophication: Status and Challenges)
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