New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2023) | Viewed by 20377

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Interests: biofilm process; advanced oxidation; adsorption; resource recovery

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Guest Editor
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Interests: biomass; hydrothermal liquefaction; energy recovery; solid waste

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global environmental pollution control and treatment are vital issues to ensure the sustainable development of society, and what can drive the  improvement of the global environment is the continuous innovation of technology. In recent years, the depletion of global resources, climate change, and other issues have become increasingly prominent, bringing a series of new challenges to the application of environmental treatment technologies. Hence, more efficient, green, and low-carbon technologies are of great importance, while energy and resource recovery are also worthy of attention.

This Special Issue aims to report on new and innovative technologies in wastewater and solid waste treatment. Original research articles and reviews with innovative technologies/materials are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

1) Low carbon technologies and approaches to wastewater and solid waste treatment;

2) Energy and resource recovery technologies from wastewater and solid waste;

3) Advanced function materials design for environmental pollutant treatment;

4) Recycling of hazardous waste, including recycling path and recycling method;

5) Electronic, optical, Fenton reaction, and persulfate advanced oxidation, including the coupling systems of any technology.

Contributory authors are invited to submit research manuscripts for the Special Issue. While selecting the article type during the online submission, authors should choose “SI: NTWST-2021”.

Dr. Yingxin Zhao
Prof. Dr. Thomas Helmer Pedersen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater
  • solid waste
  • low carbon
  • advanced material
  • biological process
  • advanced oxidation
  • energy recovery
  • resource recovery

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
Aqueous Phase from Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Composition and Toxicity Assessment
by Yuliya Kulikova, Sviatoslav Klementev, Alexander Sirotkin, Ivan Mokrushin, Mohamed Bassyouni, Yasser Elhenawy, Medhat A. El-Hadek and Olga Babich
Water 2023, 15(9), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091681 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The main obstacle to the widespread use of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) for waste and wet biomass recycling is the formation of a significant amount of highly polluted wastewaters. This paper presents an analysis of the chemical composition and toxicity of aqueous phase from [...] Read more.
The main obstacle to the widespread use of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) for waste and wet biomass recycling is the formation of a significant amount of highly polluted wastewaters. This paper presents an analysis of the chemical composition and toxicity of aqueous phase from the HTL (HTL-AP) of primary and secondary sludge. It was shown that HTL-AP has a high level of organic pollution (total organic carbon (TOC) = 4.2–9.6 g/dm3, chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 7.9–14.0 g/dm3, BOD5 = 6.0–8.1 g/dm3) and high biological toxicity for traditional test organisms (so that dilution ratio, ensuring the death of no more than 50% of organisms (DR50), varied within 64.7–142.2 and 44.9–81.7 for Artemia salina and Paramecium caudatum, respectively). An analysis of HTL-AP composition with NMR-spectroscopy method allowed us to establish that the share of carbon in aliphatic chains was 34.05–41.82% and the content of carbon in carboxyl groups and aromatic rings was 26.42–34.44%. As a result, we can conclude that the main HTL-AP components are fatty carboxylic acids and their derivatives, aromatic carboxylic acids. The content of aldehydes, ketones, and lignin is less than 8%. Biological treatment of HTL-AP in a lab-scale aerobic reactor turned out to be successful, so average COD reduction was 67–95%. Sludge from an industrial waste water treatment plant (petrochemical sector) with a microorganism concentration of 2.7 g/dm3 was used as inoculum. HTP-AP was diluted 1:10 with tap water. The duration of the process was 18 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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16 pages, 3507 KiB  
Article
Ni2+ and Cu2+ Biosorption by EPS-Producing Serratia plymuthica Strains and Potential Bio-Catalysis of the Organo–Metal Complexes
by Rocco Zanetti, Sarah Zecchin, Milena Colombo, Gigliola Borgonovo, Stefania Mazzini, Leonardo Scaglioni, Giorgio Facchetti, Raffaella Gandolfi, Isabella Rimoldi and Lucia Cavalca
Water 2022, 14(21), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213410 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
In this study, a biosorption system for nickel (Ni2+) and copper (Cu2+) removal by selected exopolymeric substance-producing bacterial strains was evaluated from the perspective of water remediation. A preliminary screening in a biofilm-based filtration system allowed the selection of [...] Read more.
In this study, a biosorption system for nickel (Ni2+) and copper (Cu2+) removal by selected exopolymeric substance-producing bacterial strains was evaluated from the perspective of water remediation. A preliminary screening in a biofilm-based filtration system allowed the selection of two best-performing Serratia plymuthica strains for specific Ni2+ and Cu2+ removal from synthetic solutions, as well as the definition of the optimal growth conditions. Further tests were conducted in a planktonic cell system in order to evaluate: (i) the effect of contact time, (ii) the effect of initial metal concentration, and (iii) the effect of biomass dose. S. plymuthica strain SC3I(2) was able to remove 89.4% of Ni2+ from a 50 mg L−1 solution, and showed maximum biosorption capacity of 33.5 mg g−1, while S. plymuthica strain As3-5a(5) removed up to 91.5% of Cu2+ from a 200 mg L−1 solution, yielding maximum biosorption capacity of 80.5 mg g−1. Adsorption equilibria of both metals were reached within 30 min, most of the process occurring in the first 2–4 min. Only Ni2+ biosorption data were adequately described by Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models, as Cu2+ was in part subjected to complexation on the exopolymeric substances. The capability of the exopolymeric substances to stably coordinate a transition metal as Cu2+ offers the possibility of the eco-friendly re-use of these new hybrid systems as catalysts for application in addition reaction of B2(pin)2 on α,β-unsaturated chalcones with good results. The systems formed by biomass and Ni2+ were instead evaluated in transfer hydrogenation of imines. The biosorption performances of both strains indicate that they have the potential to be exploited in bioremediation technologies and the obtained organo–metal complexes might be valorized for biocatalytic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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17 pages, 4473 KiB  
Article
Electrospinning of ZIF-67 Derived Co-C-N Composite Efficiently Activating Peroxymonosulfate to Degrade Dimethyl Phthalate
by Guowei Pang, Min Ji, Zhuoran Li, Zhengwu Yang, Xiaojie Qiu and Yingxin Zhao
Water 2022, 14(14), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142248 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2884
Abstract
In this work, an efficient cage-core peroxymonosulfate (PMS) catalyst was synthesized by applying an electrospinning–calcination process to the cobalt–zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-67) crystals for the catalytic degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The morphology and surface properties of the synthesized materials (ZIF-67, Z600 and [...] Read more.
In this work, an efficient cage-core peroxymonosulfate (PMS) catalyst was synthesized by applying an electrospinning–calcination process to the cobalt–zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-67) crystals for the catalytic degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The morphology and surface properties of the synthesized materials (ZIF-67, Z600 and ZP400/600/800) were well characterized. ZP600 showed great performance for the catalytic degradation of DMP in the initial pH range of 7.5–10.5. The removal rate of DMP could reach 90.4% in 60 min under optimum dosages of reagents (catalyst = 0.1 g/L, PMS = 0.5 mM, DMP = 6 ppm), and the mineralization degree of contaminant could reach 65%. By quenching experiments, it was determined that sulfate radical (SO4·) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) dominated the degradation process. Moreover, due to the good magnetism, ZP600 could be easily separated from liquid and showed great reusability in five-cycle reaction experiments. Surprisingly, with the cover of cage-like polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers, the cobalt leaching amount of ZP600 decreased by about 87%. This study would expand the application of the electrospinning process in the development of functional materials for water purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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13 pages, 3170 KiB  
Article
Intermittent Microaeration Technology to Enhance the Carbon Source Release of Particulate Organic Matter in Domestic Sewage
by Lei Zhu, Yuguang Li, Chong Liu and Guibai Li
Water 2022, 14(12), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121876 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Domestic sewage treatment plants often have insufficient carbon sources in the influent water. To solve this problem, the commonly used technical means include an additional carbon source, primary sludge fermentation, and excess sludge fermentation, but these methods are uneconomical, unsustainable, and not applicable [...] Read more.
Domestic sewage treatment plants often have insufficient carbon sources in the influent water. To solve this problem, the commonly used technical means include an additional carbon source, primary sludge fermentation, and excess sludge fermentation, but these methods are uneconomical, unsustainable, and not applicable to small-scale wastewater treatment plants. Intermittent microaeration technology has the advantages of low energy-consumption, ease of application, and low cost, and can effectively promote anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge; however little research has been reported on its use to enhance the carbon sources release of particulate organic matter (POM) from domestic wastewater. Therefore, the effect of intermittent microaeration on the carbon source release of POM was evaluated in this study, with POM as the control test. The results showed that the release concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was the highest on day 4 under microaerobic conditions, and the concentrations of SCOD, NH4+-N, and PO43−-P in the liquid phase were 1153, 137.1, and 13 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the control group, the SCOD concentration increased by 34.2%, and the NH4+-N and PO43−-P concentrations decreased by 18.65% and 17.09%, respectively. Intermittent microaeration can effectively promote the growth of Paludibacter, Actinomyces, and Trichococcus hydrolytic fermentation functional bacteria. Their relative abundances increased by 282.83%, 21.77%, and 23.47%, respectively, compared with the control group. It can simultaneously inhibit the growth of acetate-type methanogenic archaea, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina, with a decrease in relative abundances of 16.81% and 6.63%, respectively. The aforementioned data show that intermittent microaeration can not only promote the hydrolysis of POM, but can also reduce the loss of acetic acid carbon source, which is a cost-effective technical way to enhance the release of a carbon source of particulate organic matter in domestic sewage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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12 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Characterization of South African Brewery Wastewater: Oxidation-Reduction Potential Variation
by Siphesihle Mangena Khumalo, Babatunde Femi Bakare, Sudesh Rathilal and Emmanuel Kweinor Tetteh
Water 2022, 14(10), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101604 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Conventional wastewater treatment processes are challenged by the need to effectively reduce pollutant loads before disposal or reuse, as the composition and concentration of contaminants in brewery wastewater change with time. This results in the variation of the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the [...] Read more.
Conventional wastewater treatment processes are challenged by the need to effectively reduce pollutant loads before disposal or reuse, as the composition and concentration of contaminants in brewery wastewater change with time. This results in the variation of the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the affluent. Hence, the current study is aimed at the application of ORP as a real-time tool to monitor brewery wastewater quality. Other physicochemical parameters of the local brewery in South Africa investigated included temperature (T), pH, conductivity, turbidity, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), particulate chemical oxygen demand (PCOD), total solids, orthophosphate, ammoniacal nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and nitrite nitrogen. It was found that the ORP decreased (135 to −305 mV) with an increase in alkalinity (pH 4.4 to 12.2) with linear regression coefficient fit (R2 = 0.9994). The ORP facilitated the wastewater nutrient constituent degradability which improved the water quality. Furthermore, the high organic content of the brewery wastewater was found as measured by total COD (3447–11,813 mg/L). This suggests remediation before reuse of the brewery wastewater will require a robust integrated wastewater treatment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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10 pages, 4808 KiB  
Article
Decomplexation of Ni-EDTA by Three-Dimensional Electro-Fenton
by Juan Peng, Yameng Ma, Xiao Huang, Jianghua Yu, Fengjiao Yu and Jingsi Gao
Water 2022, 14(9), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091420 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Ni-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Ni-EDTA) poses serious threats to the ecological environment and human health, due to its acute toxicity and low biodegradability. The decomplexation efficiency of Ni-EDTA through the conventional Fenton process has been constrained to pH; thus, other appropriate approaches are required to [...] Read more.
Ni-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Ni-EDTA) poses serious threats to the ecological environment and human health, due to its acute toxicity and low biodegradability. The decomplexation efficiency of Ni-EDTA through the conventional Fenton process has been constrained to pH; thus, other appropriate approaches are required to destroy the stable chelate structure at a neutral pH. In this study, the effect of operating parameters such as the pH, Fe2+ concentration, particle electrode dosage, current density, and coexisting ions was studied. The results revealed that the 3D-EF system owned advantages for the removal of Ni-EDTA in the broadening of the pH application window. The Ni-EDTA removal efficiency in the 3D-EF system reached 84.89% after 120 min at a pH of 7. In addition, the presence of coexisting ions slightly affected the decomplexation efficiency of Ni-EDTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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13 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
Formation and Microbial Composition of Biofilms in Drip Irrigation System under Three Reclaimed Water Conditions
by Tianzhi Wang, Xingda Dai, Tianjiao Zhang, Changchun Xin, Zucheng Guo and Jiehua Wang
Water 2022, 14(8), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081216 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
As the second source of water for cities, reclaimed water (RW) has become an effective solution to the problem of water scarcity in modern agriculture. However, the formation of biofilm in an RW distribution system seriously affects the performance of the system and [...] Read more.
As the second source of water for cities, reclaimed water (RW) has become an effective solution to the problem of water scarcity in modern agriculture. However, the formation of biofilm in an RW distribution system seriously affects the performance of the system and has become a technical challenge in RW utilization. In this study, we first showed that several water quality parameters, including five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total bacteria count (TB), total nitrogen (TN), and Cl were the main factors affecting biofilm accumulation in the drip irrigation system (DIS), with the correlation coefficient averaging above 0.85. Second, after 392 to 490 h of system operation, the total biomass and extracellular polymer (EPS) accumulation rate of biofilms increased to a maximum of 0.72 g/m2·h and 0.027g/m2·h, respectively, making this time point a critical point for controlling biofilm accumulation and clogging of the system. Third, we examined changes in biofilm microbial composition over time on Illumina’s MiSeq platform. High throughput sequencing data showed that bacterial community structure and microbial network interaction and modularity changed significantly between 392 and 490 h, resulting in maximum microbial diversity and community richness at 490 h. Spearman correlation analyses between genera revealed that Sphingomonas and Rhodococcus promote biofilm formation due to their hydrophobicity, while Bacillus, Mariniradius, and Arthronema may inhibit biofilm formation due to their antagonistic effects on other genera. In conclusion, this work has clarified the accumulation process and compositional changes of biofilms in agriculture DIS under different RW conditions, which provides a basis for improving RW utilization efficiency and reducing system maintenance costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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9 pages, 1528 KiB  
Article
Remediation Efficiency of the In Situ Vitrification Method at an Unidentified-Waste and Groundwater Treatment Site
by Shu-Lung Kuo and Edward Ming-Yang Wu
Water 2021, 13(24), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243594 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
The subject of this study was the dust collected from an electric arc furnace at an unidentified-waste treatment site in southern Taiwan. The dust underwent an in situ vitrification (ISV) process and was tested using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), at the [...] Read more.
The subject of this study was the dust collected from an electric arc furnace at an unidentified-waste treatment site in southern Taiwan. The dust underwent an in situ vitrification (ISV) process and was tested using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), at the end of which the final product was analyzed for its stability and weather resistance. This study then examined the above results to determine whether the ISV process helps to enhance the efficiency and economic benefits of said waste-treatment site. A TCLP test conducted on the dust that had been treated with ISV revealed that concentrations of various heavy metals were not only far below those of the unprocessed sample dust but also fell below the limit stipulated in the TCLP regulation of Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. The results show that after undergoing ISV treatment, heavy metals in the dust were either encapsulated or bound in silicon lattices and thus barely leached from the dust. Analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicate that the surface of the dust appeared more compacted after going through the ISV process. In addition, the highly contaminated dust that underwent ISV treatment saw a pronounced decrease in or elimination of wave crests. Another analysis applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the SiO2 crests disappeared in the processed dust, suggesting that the crystal structure was replaced with quasi-vitreous products after ISV treatment. In the event that pollutants were extant, they were usually characterized by smaller size, high stability, excellent weather resistance, an innocuous nature, and recyclability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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16 pages, 2191 KiB  
Article
The Application of Low Impact Development Facility Chain on Storm Rainfall Control: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China
by Ying Zhang, Hongliang Xu, Honglei Liu and Bin Zhou
Water 2021, 13(23), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233375 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
In recent decades, low impact development (LID) has become an increasingly important concern as a state-of-the-art stormwater management mode to treat urban flood, preferable to conventional urban drainage systems. However, the effects of the combined use of different LID facilities on urban flooding [...] Read more.
In recent decades, low impact development (LID) has become an increasingly important concern as a state-of-the-art stormwater management mode to treat urban flood, preferable to conventional urban drainage systems. However, the effects of the combined use of different LID facilities on urban flooding have not been fully investigated under different rainfall characteristics. In this study, a residential, neighborhood-scale catchment in Shenzhen City, southern China was selected as a case study, where the effects of four LID techniques (bio-retention, bio-swale, rain garden and pervious pavement) with different connection patterns (cascaded, semi-cascaded and paralleled) on runoff reduction efficiency were analyzed by the storm water management model (SWMM), promoted by the U.S. EPA. Three kinds of designed storm events with different return periods, durations and time-to-peak ratios were forced to simulate the flood for holistic assessment of the LID connection patterns. The effects were measured by the runoff coefficient of the whole storm–runoff process and the peak runoff volume. The results obtained indicate that the cascaded connect LID chain can more effectively reduce the runoff than that in the paralleled connect LID chain under different storms. The performances of the LID chains in modeling flood process in SWMM indicate that the runoff coefficient and the peak runoff volume increase with the increase in the rain return periods and the decrease in rain duration. Additionally, the move backward of the peak rain intensity to the end of the storm event slightly affects the peak runoff volume obviously while gives slight influence on the total runoff volume. This study provides an insight into the performance of LID chain designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technology Development for Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
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