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Special Issue "Landslide Hydrology"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Roy C. Sidle

Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast ML-28, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland 4558, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrology; landslides; forest hydrology; hydrogeomorphology; sustainability science; soil erosion
Guest Editor
Dr. Roberto Greco

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Design Edilizia e Ambiente, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, via Roma 9, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Vadose zone hydrology; hillslope hydrology; landslides; water distribution systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Thom A. Bogaard

Water Resources Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Hillslope hydrology; landslides; innovative hydrological measurements; tracers and monitoring; catchment hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most landslides are triggered by rainfall, but the hydrologic dynamics that leads to changes in soil moisture and pore water pressure remains an important focal area of investigation. The effects of hillslope hydrology on runoff generation have been thoroughly studied, but less attention has been paid to these effects on slope stability. Nonetheless, the complex interactions amongst dynamic hydro-eco-geomorphic processes that evolve across spatial and temporal domains create the conditions for landslide initiation. Both the infiltration and exfiltration of rainwater and snowmelt provide the local trigger of landslides, while drainage and evapotranspiration tend to stabilize hillslopes by rerouting and removing subsurface water. An important aspect of the hydrologic system is the dynamics of preferential flow pathways, which can concentrate subsurface water within critical hillslope areas or drain water from potentially-unstable sites. Incorporating hydrological process knowledge into slope failure analysis still lags behind model development, largely because of the complexity of landslides. In addition to difficulties in understanding water pathways within heterogeneous soils and fractured bedrock, monitoring groundwater levels or soil moisture contents in unstable terrain present a challenge due to the large areas.  

This Special Issue aims to develop a better understanding of hydrological processes related to landslide occurrence at both local and regional scales. It focuses on investigations in different climatological regions of the world where hydrological processes are monitored, including detailed field studies and regional hydrological investigations using remotely sensed and broader-scale field data. Analyses and modeling of these hydrological processes in potential landslide sites based on field observations at hillslope and catchment scales are welcome, as are the effects of vegetation, land use, geomorphology, and other earth surface dynamics on hydrological processes in unstable hillslopes. The objective is to improve our understanding of hydrologic dynamics in unstable hillslopes and ultimately the prediction of landslide triggering mechanisms, both in space and time.

Prof. Roy C. Sidle
Dr. Roberto Greco
Dr. Thom A. Bogaard
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • landslides
  • rainfall
  • hydrology
  • preferential flow
  • vegetation influences
  • geomorphology
  • pore water pressure
  • suction loss
  • hydrogeomorphology
  • cascading hazards

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial
Overview of Landslide Hydrology
Water 2019, 11(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010148
Received: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Most landslides and debris flows worldwide occur during or following periods of rainfall, and many of these have been associated with major disasters causing extensive property damage and loss of life [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Factors for Controlling Sediment Connectivity of Landslide Materials: A Flume Experiment
Water 2019, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010017
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Connectivity of landslide sediment to and within fluvial systems is a key factor affecting the extent of mobilization of hillslope material. In particular, the formation of landslide dams and the transformation into landslide-induced debris flows represent “end members” of landslide sediment mobility. To [...] Read more.
Connectivity of landslide sediment to and within fluvial systems is a key factor affecting the extent of mobilization of hillslope material. In particular, the formation of landslide dams and the transformation into landslide-induced debris flows represent “end members” of landslide sediment mobility. To quantify sediment connectivity, we developed a two-segment flume representing tributary inflow and the main channel. Mobility of sediment was examined by combinations of various topographic factors, such as tributary inflow angle (0 to 90° in 30° increments) and main channel gradient (10° and 15°), as well as water content of sediment (0 to 100% in 20% increments). We also examined differences of mobility among sediments derived from various lithologies (sand and shale, pyroclastic sediment, weathered granite, and weathered sedimentary rock). Mobility of sediment differed, depending on the water content of sediment, particularly less than saturation or greater than saturation. When all types of unsaturated landslide sediments entered the channel at inflow angles of 60° and 90°, substantial deposition occurred, suggesting the formation of landslide dams. At low inflow angles (0° and 30°) in a steep channel (15°), >50% of landslide sediment was transported downstream, indicating the occurrence of a debris flow. The amount of sediment deposited at the junction angle was greater for pyroclastic sediment followed by weathered granite, weathered sedimentary rock, and finally, sand and shale. Our connectivity index suggests that a threshold exists between landslide dam formation and debris flow occurrence associated with topographic conditions, water content, and types of sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Unraveling the Dynamics of a Creeping Slope in Northwestern Colombia: Hydrological Variables, and Geoelectrical and Seismic Signatures
Water 2018, 10(11), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111498
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mass movements are quite common in the Northern Andes and constitute one of the major hazards in the region. In particular, along valley flanks where the city of Medellin (Colombia) is located, rainfall is the main trigger of these phenomena, but little is [...] Read more.
Mass movements are quite common in the Northern Andes and constitute one of the major hazards in the region. In particular, along valley flanks where the city of Medellin (Colombia) is located, rainfall is the main trigger of these phenomena, but little is understood about how water in the soil and subsoil behaves. In this study, we show data from some basic soil hydrology measurements and conventional geophysical surveys within a ~4 ha experimental plot that is experiencing soil creep. The seasonally wet study site has an average slope gradient of 33%, and its surface geology consists of a series of older deposits of debris flows. Our measurements show a low surface runoff, which ranges from 4 to 11% of the rainfall; infiltration is 89–96% of the rainfall, and 15–33% corresponds to drainage water at shallow levels in the soil (20–50 cm); piezometric measurements reveal a mostly steady-state water table. About 14–54% of the rainfall becomes subsurface flow within the first ~1–2 m below the surface. Geoelectrical and seismic surveys suggest small temporal changes in the properties of materials shallower than 2 m, consistent with the steady-state water table and the permanent and high subsurface flow. These geophysical surveys also indicate the presence of a major discontinuity at ~4–6 m below the surface, which we interpret as the limit between different prior debris flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Control of Tropical Landcover and Soil Properties on Landslides’ Aquifer Recharge, Piezometry and Dynamics
Water 2018, 10(10), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101491
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Among the processes controlling landslide dynamics, piezometry plays a major role. The characterization of a landslide’s aquifer recharge (=inflows) is thus indispensable for predicting displacements. In this research, the recharge of the large Grand Ilet landslide in the humid tropical, Reunion Island was [...] Read more.
Among the processes controlling landslide dynamics, piezometry plays a major role. The characterization of a landslide’s aquifer recharge (=inflows) is thus indispensable for predicting displacements. In this research, the recharge of the large Grand Ilet landslide in the humid tropical, Reunion Island was characterized through a multi-disciplinary and robust hydrological approach, notably comprising a precise water budget of the landslide (outflows = inflows). Surface processes play a major role in the landslide recharge regime. Runoff is less than 1% of rainfall (2400 mm/year) due to the soil’s high permeability. A large quantity of water (250 mm) is adsorbed in this shallow layer. This reservoir is submitted to high real evapotranspiration (1500 mm/year) due to the dense tropical broad-leaved vegetation. This explains the low aquifer recharge (860 mm/year), the fact that only major rainfall episodes during the rainy season induce recharge, with a consequent increase in landslide velocity, and finally low outflow from the landslide. Therefore, among other operational recommendations, it is necessary to maintain natural vegetation cover over such landslide surface in order to limit aquifer recharge and thus displacements. This study provides a methodological framework for landslide studies, particularly for modeling their recharge/piezometry, and key parameters of their dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Bedrock Topography on Timing and Location of Landslide Initiation Using the Local Factor of Safety Concept
Water 2018, 10(10), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101290
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bedrock topography is known to affect subsurface water flow and thus the spatial distribution of pore water pressure, which is a key factor for determining slope stability. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bedrock topography on the [...] Read more.
Bedrock topography is known to affect subsurface water flow and thus the spatial distribution of pore water pressure, which is a key factor for determining slope stability. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bedrock topography on the timing and location of landslide initiation using 2D and 3D simulations with a hydromechanical model and the Local Factor of Safety (LFS) method. A set of synthetic modeling experiments was performed where water flow and slope stability were simulated for 2D and 3D slopes with layers of variable thickness and hydraulic parameters. In particular, the spatial and temporal development of water content, pore water pressure, and the resulting LFS were analyzed. The results showed that the consideration of variable bedrock topography can have a significant effect on slope stability and that this effect is highly dependent on the intensity of the event rainfall. In addition, it was found that the consideration of 3D water flow may either increase or decrease the predicted stability depending on how bedrock topography affected the redistribution of infiltrated water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Hydro-Meteorological Thresholds for Shallow Landslide Initiation and Early Warning
Water 2018, 10(9), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091274
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Consistent relations between shallow landslide initiation and associated rainfall characteristics remain difficult to identify, due largely to the complex hydrological and geological processes causing slopes to be predisposed to failure and those processes that subsequently trigger failures. Considering the importance of hillslope hydrology [...] Read more.
Consistent relations between shallow landslide initiation and associated rainfall characteristics remain difficult to identify, due largely to the complex hydrological and geological processes causing slopes to be predisposed to failure and those processes that subsequently trigger failures. Considering the importance of hillslope hydrology for rainfall-induced landsliding, we develop and test a method for identifying hybrid hydro-meteorological thresholds to assess landslide initiation potential. We outline a series of steps for using a landslide inventory in combination with triggering rainfall and antecedent wetness to identify empirical thresholds that can inform landslide early warning systems. The method is semi-automated but remains flexible enough to allow threshold developers to consider data inputs and various performance metrics with different priorities for balancing failed versus false alarms. We demonstrate the utility of our approach for two monitoring sites near Seattle, Washington and in Portland, Oregon, USA, to develop daily bilinear thresholds within a two-dimensional parameter space, which rely on accurate 24 h forecasts, measured recent rainfall and in situ soil saturation. Although there were no prior landslide thresholds for Portland, our new hybrid threshold for the Seattle area outperforms established rainfall-only thresholds for the same region. Introducing subsurface hydrologic monitoring into landslide initiation thresholds has the potential to greatly improve early warning capabilities and help reduce losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Groundwater on the Sliding and Deposition Behaviors of Cataclinal Slopes
Water 2018, 10(9), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091179
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2015, Typhoon Soudelor caused a number of slopes to collapse in Wulai District of New Taipei City. One of these landslides took place in the village of Zhongzhi and involved atypical cataclinal slope failure with a rock–soil interface. The remaining rock in [...] Read more.
In 2015, Typhoon Soudelor caused a number of slopes to collapse in Wulai District of New Taipei City. One of these landslides took place in the village of Zhongzhi and involved atypical cataclinal slope failure with a rock–soil interface. The remaining rock in the slope and the rock that originally covered it contained vertical joints, so groundwater could have flowed through the joints and influenced landslide behavior. However, few existing studies have examined the influence of upward groundwater flow on slope stability. To fill this gap, this study used physical tests and discrete element method software to conduct relevant investigations. We first conducted tests using the ground water flow and cataclinal slope simulator, in which water can flow out of holes in the platform to simulate upward-seeping groundwater. We used gypsum boards or rhombus-shaped grinding stones to simulate rock with vertical joints and round grinding stones mixed in paste to simulate cohesive regolith. The objective of the tests was to understand the influence of water flow on the landslide behavior of the specimens and the connections between movement behavior and the sequence of sliding between different materials during the landslide. We then reproduced the physical tests using discrete element method software PFC3D (Particle Flow Code 3D Version 4.0 by Itasca, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to display the influence of water flow on specimens, including the weakening of bond strength, decreasing coefficient of friction between particles, and the application of seepage force, as well as uplift and lateral forces caused by water pressure. This process gave us an understanding of the influence of different groundwater conditions on landslide behavior, which facilitates the study of landslide mechanisms and movement behavior. Finally, we applied the water flow influence settings to simulate and examine the Zhongzhi landslide process. Compared to methods that simply reduce the friction coefficients to trigger landslides, our numerical simulation was closer to reality in that in this case a rising water table triggered the landslide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the 2D Depth-Averaged Model, FLATModel, to Pumiceous Debris Flows in the Amalfi Coast
Water 2018, 10(9), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091159
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (17544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies about modelling pumice debris flows are available in literature. An integrated approach based on field surveys and numerical modelling is here proposed. A pumiceous debris flow, which occurred in the Amalfi Coast (Italy), is reconstructed by the numerical code, FLATModel, consisting [...] Read more.
Few studies about modelling pumice debris flows are available in literature. An integrated approach based on field surveys and numerical modelling is here proposed. A pumiceous debris flow, which occurred in the Amalfi Coast (Italy), is reconstructed by the numerical code, FLATModel, consisting of a two-dimensional shallow-water model written in curvilinear coordinates. The morphological evolution of the gully and of the alluvial fan was monitored by terrestrial laser scanner and photo-modelling aerial surveys, providing, in a cost-effective way, data otherwise unavailable, for the implementation, calibration and validation of the model. The most suitable resistance law is identified to be the Voellmy model, which is found capable of correctly describing the friction-collisional resistance mechanisms of pumiceous debris flows. The initial conditions of the numerical simulations are assumed to be of dam-break type: i.e., they are given by the sudden release of masses of pumice, whose shape and depths are obtained by reconstruction of the pre-event slopes. The predicted depths and shape of deposits are compared with the measured ones, where a good agreement (average error smaller than 10 cm) is observed for several dam-break scenarios. The proposed cost-effective integrated approach can be straightforwardly employed for the description of other debris flows of the same kind and for better designing risk mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal and Event-Based Hydrological and Slope Stability Modeling of Pyroclastic Fall Deposits Covering Slopes in Campania (Southern Italy)
Water 2018, 10(9), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091140
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pyroclastic fall deposits mantling mountain slopes in the Campania region (Southern Italy) represent one of the most studied geomorphological frameworks of the world regarding rainfall-induced debris flows threating urban areas. The proposed study focused on advancing knowledge about the hydrological response of [...] Read more.
The pyroclastic fall deposits mantling mountain slopes in the Campania region (Southern Italy) represent one of the most studied geomorphological frameworks of the world regarding rainfall-induced debris flows threating urban areas. The proposed study focused on advancing knowledge about the hydrological response of pyroclastic fall coverings from the seasonal to event-based time scales, leading to the initiation of slope instability. The study was based on two consequential tasks. The first was the analysis of a six-year monitoring of soil pressure head carried out in a sample area of the Sarno Mountains, located above a debris flow initiation zone. The second was based on coupled hydrological and slope stability modeling performed on the physical models of slopes, which were reconstructed by empirical correlations between the slope angle, total thickness, and stratigraphic settings of pyroclastic fall deposits mantling slopes. The results obtained were: (a) The understanding of a soil pressure head regime of the volcaniclastic soil mantle, always ranging in unsaturated conditions and characterized by a strong seasonal variability depending on precipitation patterns and the life cycle of deciduous chestnut forest; and (b) the reconstruction through a deterministic approach of seasonal intensity–duration rainfall thresholds related to different morphological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Development of a 1-D Integrated Hydro-Mechanical Model Based on Flume Tests to Unravel Different Hydrological Triggering Processes of Debris Flows
Water 2018, 10(7), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070950
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many studies which try to analyze conditions for debris flow development ignore the type of initiation. Therefore, this paper deals with the following questions: What type of hydro-mechanical triggering mechanisms for debris flows can we distinguish in upstream channels of debris flow prone [...] Read more.
Many studies which try to analyze conditions for debris flow development ignore the type of initiation. Therefore, this paper deals with the following questions: What type of hydro-mechanical triggering mechanisms for debris flows can we distinguish in upstream channels of debris flow prone gullies? Which are the main parameters controlling the type and temporal sequence of these triggering processes, and what is their influence on the meteorological thresholds for debris flow initiation? A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume 8 m long and with a width of 0.3 m to detect the conditions for different types of triggering mechanisms. The flume experiments show a sequence of hydrological processes triggering debris flows, namely erosion and transport by intensive overland flow and by infiltrating water causing failure of channel bed material. On the basis of these experiments, an integrated hydro-mechanical model was developed, which describes Hortonian and saturation overland flow, maximum sediment transport, through flow and failure of bed material. The model was calibrated and validated using process indicator values measured during the experiments in the flume. Virtual model simulations carried out in a schematic hypothetical source area of a catchment show that slope angle and hydraulic conductivity of the bed material determine the type and sequence of these triggering processes. It was also clearly demonstrated that the type of hydrological triggering process and the influencing geometrical and hydro-mechanical parameters may have a great influence on rainfall intensity-duration threshold curves for the start of debris flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Interaction between Perched Epikarst Aquifer and Unsaturated Soil Cover in the Initiation of Shallow Landslides in Pyroclastic Soils
Water 2018, 10(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070948
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A physically based mathematical model of the slope of Cervinara (southern Italy), which is characterized by a shallow pyroclastic soil cover laying upon a limestone fractured bedrock, has been developed. Previous and current ongoing monitoring suggested that leakage through the soil–bedrock interface occurred, [...] Read more.
A physically based mathematical model of the slope of Cervinara (southern Italy), which is characterized by a shallow pyroclastic soil cover laying upon a limestone fractured bedrock, has been developed. Previous and current ongoing monitoring suggested that leakage through the soil–bedrock interface occurred, with leaking water temporarily stored in a perched aquifer located in the upper part of the fractured limestone (epikarst). This aquifer supplied several springs, and recharge to the deeper groundwater circulation occurred. Hence, in the proposed model, the unsaturated water flow taking place within the soil cover is coupled with the saturated water flow in the perched aquifer. The application of the model to the simulation of the slope hydrologic behavior over a period of 11 years, between 2006–2017, provides realistic results in terms of soil storage, epikarst storage, spring discharge, and groundwater recharge. The different response times of soil and epikarst aquifer to precipitation input allow distinguishing the hydrological predisposing causes of potential landsliding (i.e., a few months of persistent rainfall that is capable of filling the epikarst aquifer) from the triggers, which are represented by single intense rainfall events. The application of the model offers a key of interpretation of the hydrological processes leading to the landslide that occurred on 16 December 1999. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of a Full-Scale Embankment Experiment Regarding Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere Interactions
Water 2018, 10(6), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060688
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Slope mass-wasting like shallow slides are mostly triggered by climate effects, such as rainfall, and soil–vegetation–atmosphere (SVA) interactions play a key role. SVA interactions are studied by a full-scale embankment with different orientations (North and South) and vegetation covers (bare and vegetated) in [...] Read more.
Slope mass-wasting like shallow slides are mostly triggered by climate effects, such as rainfall, and soil–vegetation–atmosphere (SVA) interactions play a key role. SVA interactions are studied by a full-scale embankment with different orientations (North and South) and vegetation covers (bare and vegetated) in the framework of the prediction of climate change effects on slope stability in the Pyrenees. A clayey sand from the Llobregat river delta was used for the construction of the embankment and laboratory tests showed the importance of suction on the strength and hydraulic conductivity. Sixty sensors, which are mostly installed at the upper soil layer of the embankment, registered 122 variables at four vertical profiles and the meteorological station with a 5 min scan rate. Regarding temperature, daily temperature fluctuation at the shallow soil layer disappeared at a depth of about 0.5 m. There was great influence of orientation with much higher values at the South-facing slope (up to 55 °C at −1 cm depth) due to solar radiation. Regarding rainfall infiltration, only long duration rainfalls produced an important increase of soil moisture and pore water pressure, while short duration rainfalls did not trigger significant variations. However, these changes mostly affected the surface soil layer and decreased with depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Variations in Long-Duration Rainfall Intensity on Unsaturated Slope Stability
Water 2018, 10(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040479
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (20589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, many scientific methods have been used to prove that the Earth’s climate is changing. Climate change can affect rainfall patterns, which can in turn affect slope safety. Therefore, this study analyzed the effects of climate change on rainfall patterns from [...] Read more.
In recent years, many scientific methods have been used to prove that the Earth’s climate is changing. Climate change can affect rainfall patterns, which can in turn affect slope safety. Therefore, this study analyzed the effects of climate change on rainfall patterns from the perspective of rainfall intensity. This analysis was combined with numerical model analysis to examine the rainfall patterns of the Zengwen reservoir catchment area and its effects on slope stability. In this study, the Mann–Kendall test and the Theil–Sen estimator were used to analyze the rainfall records of rainfall stations at Da-Dong-Shan, Ma-To-Shan, and San-Jiao-Nan-Shan. The rainfall intensity of the Zengwen reservoir catchment area showed an increasing trend from 1990–2016. In addition, the analysis results of rainfall intensity trends were used for qualitative analysis of seepage and slope stability. The trend analysis result showed that in the future, from 2017–2100, if the amount of rainfall per hour continues to rise at about 0.1 mm per year, the amount of seepage will increase at the slope surface boundary and significantly change pore water pressure in the soil. As a result, the time of the occurrence of slope instability after the start of rainfall will decrease from 20 to 13 h, and the reduction in the safety coefficient will increase from 32 to 41%. Therefore, to decrease the effects of slope disasters on the safety of the Zengwen reservoir and its surrounding areas, changes in rainfall intensity trends should be considered for slope safety in this region. However, the results of trend analyses were weak and future research is needed using a wider range of precipitation data and detailed hydrological analysis to better predict rainfall pattern variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note
A Regional-Scale Landslide Warning System Based on 20 Years of Operational Experience
Water 2018, 10(10), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101297
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
SIGMA is a regional landslide warning system based on statistical rainfall thresholds that operates in Emilia Romagna (Italy). In this work, we depict its birth and the continuous development process, still ongoing, after two decades of operational employ. Indeed, a constant work was [...] Read more.
SIGMA is a regional landslide warning system based on statistical rainfall thresholds that operates in Emilia Romagna (Italy). In this work, we depict its birth and the continuous development process, still ongoing, after two decades of operational employ. Indeed, a constant work was carried out to gather and incorporate in the modeling new data (extended rainfall recordings, updated landslides inventories, temperature and soil moisture data). The use of these data allowed for regular updates of the model and some conceptual improvements, which consistently increased the forecasting effectiveness of the warning system through time. Landslide forecasting at regional scale is a very complex task, but this paper shows that, as time passes by, the systematic gathering and analysis of new data and the continuous progresses of research activity, uncertainties can be progressively reduced. Thus, by the setting up of forward-looking research programs, the performances and the reliability of regional scale warning systems can be increased with time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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