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Water 2018, 10(9), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091179

The Influence of Groundwater on the Sliding and Deposition Behaviors of Cataclinal Slopes

1
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan
2
Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miaoli City 36003, Taiwan
3
Central Geological Survey, MOEA, New Taipei City 23567, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landslide Hydrology)
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Abstract

In 2015, Typhoon Soudelor caused a number of slopes to collapse in Wulai District of New Taipei City. One of these landslides took place in the village of Zhongzhi and involved atypical cataclinal slope failure with a rock–soil interface. The remaining rock in the slope and the rock that originally covered it contained vertical joints, so groundwater could have flowed through the joints and influenced landslide behavior. However, few existing studies have examined the influence of upward groundwater flow on slope stability. To fill this gap, this study used physical tests and discrete element method software to conduct relevant investigations. We first conducted tests using the ground water flow and cataclinal slope simulator, in which water can flow out of holes in the platform to simulate upward-seeping groundwater. We used gypsum boards or rhombus-shaped grinding stones to simulate rock with vertical joints and round grinding stones mixed in paste to simulate cohesive regolith. The objective of the tests was to understand the influence of water flow on the landslide behavior of the specimens and the connections between movement behavior and the sequence of sliding between different materials during the landslide. We then reproduced the physical tests using discrete element method software PFC3D (Particle Flow Code 3D Version 4.0 by Itasca, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to display the influence of water flow on specimens, including the weakening of bond strength, decreasing coefficient of friction between particles, and the application of seepage force, as well as uplift and lateral forces caused by water pressure. This process gave us an understanding of the influence of different groundwater conditions on landslide behavior, which facilitates the study of landslide mechanisms and movement behavior. Finally, we applied the water flow influence settings to simulate and examine the Zhongzhi landslide process. Compared to methods that simply reduce the friction coefficients to trigger landslides, our numerical simulation was closer to reality in that in this case a rising water table triggered the landslide. View Full-Text
Keywords: cataclinal slope; groundwater; rock–soil interface; ground water flow and cataclinal slope simulator; discrete element method cataclinal slope; groundwater; rock–soil interface; ground water flow and cataclinal slope simulator; discrete element method
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Weng, C.-H.; Lin, M.-L.; Lo, C.-M.; Lin, H.-H. The Influence of Groundwater on the Sliding and Deposition Behaviors of Cataclinal Slopes. Water 2018, 10, 1179.

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