Special Issue "Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Iwona Skoczko
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45A, 15–351 Białystok, Poland
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; water and wastewater quality; water pollution monitoring; filtration; activated sludge
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Dorota Anna Krawczyk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
Interests: energy certification of buildings; possibility of improvements in the energy performance of facilities; energy Saving versus Indoor Air Quality, renewable energy sources
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Antonio Rodero Serrano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences of Belmez, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: water treatment; water used in energy production; renewable energy for application in hot domestic water and heating; activation of water by plasma technology; application of activated water
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Water includes interesting scientific manuscripts following current research trends on:

  1. Drinking water quality;
  2. Ground and surface water quality and pollution;
  3. Industrial and technological water quality;
  4. Wastewater treatment with physical methods;
  5. Wastewater treatment with chemical methods;
  6. Wastewater treatment with biological methods;
  7. Natural methods usage for water and wastewater treatment;
  8. Biotechnology of water;
  9. Single processes usage for elimination of selected pollutants from water and wastewater;
  10. Integrated processes usage for elimination of selected pollutants from water and wastewater.

Our aim is for this Special Issue of Water to help readers to recognize the main water and wastewater problems from a scientific and technological point of view. By knowing potential water hazards and the ways to solve them, readers may understand other opinions and perspectives.

Prof. Iwona Skoczko
Assoc. Prof. Dorota Anna Krawczyk
Prof. Antonio Rodero Serrano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water and wastewater treatment
  • water and wastewater quality
  • water pollution monitoring

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effect of Photooxidation on Nanofiltration Membrane Fouling During Wastewater Treatment from the Confectionery Industry
Water 2020, 12(3), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030793 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
The research in this article aimed to present the possibilities of wastewater treatment coming from the confectionery plant in the nanofiltration (NF) process and the use of photooxidation to mitigate membrane fouling. The process was carried out initially in a dead-end flow system, [...] Read more.
The research in this article aimed to present the possibilities of wastewater treatment coming from the confectionery plant in the nanofiltration (NF) process and the use of photooxidation to mitigate membrane fouling. The process was carried out initially in a dead-end flow system, where the most favorable membrane was selected. Next, the purification efficiency and blocking intensity of this membrane in the system were compared with cross flow. The next research involved the use of a photolytic oxidation process to pretreat sugar wastewater. UV radiation was emitted by a medium pressure mercury UV lamp model TQ 150 V. The effectiveness of the process was also evaluated based on the degree of pollutant load removal. The evaluation of the efficiency of a treatment process was based on the change of wastewater quality indicators before and after the membrane process. The following parameters were controlled: color, COD (chemical oxygen demand), TOC (total organic carbon), absorbance of UV254, nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, conductivity, and pH. During the course of pressure filtration, the following properties of the membrane were determined: the dependence of the volumetric flux of the permeate on the process duration, the permeability of the membrane, as well as the contact angle of the membranes. It was found that the use of UV reduced the phenomenon of fouling of nanofiltration membranes. The value of the permeate volumetric flow after the hour of running the process increased by 17%. However, no impact of UV on the efficiency of wastewater treatment was found. However, the NF process provided the required quality of treated wastewater that can be reused in industrial applications. The NF process resulted in a total decrease in absorbance, 99% TOC removal, and 98% color removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Reliability Analysis of Activated Sludge Process by Means of Biokinetic Modelling and Simulation Results
Water 2020, 12(1), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010291 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Analysis of wastewater treatment plant reliability is a difficult process, therefore it is often limited to selected aspects, e.g., mechanical reliability of equipment or technological availability of the process. The research presents a method of combining the above mentioned aspects in order to [...] Read more.
Analysis of wastewater treatment plant reliability is a difficult process, therefore it is often limited to selected aspects, e.g., mechanical reliability of equipment or technological availability of the process. The research presents a method of combining the above mentioned aspects in order to determine the complex operational availability index (CAVO). A hypothetical technological system with activated sludge (AS) in a typical layout (denitrification-nitrification) was selected for the studies. A number of operational scenarios have been developed, taking into account the possible mechanical failures of system components. Computer simulations with the use of Activated Sludge Model No.1 (ASM1), performed for selected scenarios allowed the determination of a complex operational availability of the system. Obtained results confirm high reliability of AS system in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (CAVO > 0.96) and indicate the necessity of further research in order to determine representative value of reliability of total nitrogen removal (from the study, CAVO-Ntot < 0.4) and to evaluate other technological solutions in terms of their complex reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
The Quality of Stored Rainwater for Washing Purposes
Water 2020, 12(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010252 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The use of rainwater for washing clothes is determined by its amount, composition and quality of washing. Raw rainwater is soft and free of pollution. The collected rainwater already contains pollution present in the atmosphere and washed away from roofs and other surfaces. [...] Read more.
The use of rainwater for washing clothes is determined by its amount, composition and quality of washing. Raw rainwater is soft and free of pollution. The collected rainwater already contains pollution present in the atmosphere and washed away from roofs and other surfaces. It can also change its quality when stored in tanks. Washing clothes does not require drinking quality water but just clean, safe water that guarantees effective removal of dirt from fabrics. The study determined the physicochemical and microbiological changes of rainwater characteristics during retention. Rainwater was collected in a standard underground tank for 30 days and water analyses were conducted every 10 days. The possibility of tap water replacement in the household with collected rainwater for ecological clothes washing has been assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Analysis of Risk Assessment in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in Upper Silesia
Water 2020, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010023 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Nowadays, risk management applies to every technical facility, branch of the economy, and industry. Due to the characteristics of the analyzed wastewater treatment plant and the specificity of the used processes, one must approach different areas individually. Municipal sewage treatment plants are technical [...] Read more.
Nowadays, risk management applies to every technical facility, branch of the economy, and industry. Due to the characteristics of the analyzed wastewater treatment plant and the specificity of the used processes, one must approach different areas individually. Municipal sewage treatment plants are technical facilities; they function as enterprises and are elements of larger systems—water distribution and sewage disposal. Due to their strategic importance for the environment and human beings, it is essential that they are covered by risk management systems. The basic stage of risk management is its assessment. On its basis, strategic decisions are made and new solutions are introduced. Constant monitoring of the operation of a treatment plant allows for assessment of whether actions taken are correct and whether they cause deterioration of the quality of sewage. In our work, we present a method of risk assessment based on historical data for an existing facility and obtained results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
The Comparison of Selected Types of Municipal Sewage Sludge Filtrates Toxicity in Different Biological Models: From Bacterial Strains to Mammalian Cells. Preliminary Study
Water 2019, 11(11), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112353 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Sewage sludge (SS) is a complex mixture of potentially toxic compounds, which may affect the environment. Many methodologies are being implemented in order to assess the risk that SS may cause after the exposition, but usually they rely on chemical analyses that cannot [...] Read more.
Sewage sludge (SS) is a complex mixture of potentially toxic compounds, which may affect the environment. Many methodologies are being implemented in order to assess the risk that SS may cause after the exposition, but usually they rely on chemical analyses that cannot predict their toxicological impact. Therefore, biological systems are essential in such studies. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 3 types of SS filtrates: sludge from primary clarifier, sludge from aeration tank and sludge from thickened sludge tank after flocculant addition. In order to thoroughly investigate SS cytotoxicity, we proposed different biological models: Aliivibrio fischeri, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and LN-229 glioblastoma cell line. Obtained results indicate that SS3 was the most toxic against A. fisheri, but tests conducted with the use of E. coli and LN-229 human cell line showed the higher toxicity of SS1. Different toxicity of analyzed filtrates in different biological models could be explained by differences in applied model structure, metabolism and life requirements. Therefore, the reuse of SS should be conducted with caution, and it is important for the SS to undergo a specific remediation process before introducing them into the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Treatment Method Assessment of the Impact on the Corrosivity and Aggressiveness for the Boiler Feed Water
Water 2019, 11(10), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101965 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The aim of the study was the assessment of corrosivity and aggressiveness for boiler feed water. The negative effects of water corrosivity and aggressiveness may include silting up of the steel water supply system and the destruction of boiler equipment touched or washed [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was the assessment of corrosivity and aggressiveness for boiler feed water. The negative effects of water corrosivity and aggressiveness may include silting up of the steel water supply system and the destruction of boiler equipment touched or washed by such water. They may cause the whole industrial production system to fail or be destroyed. That is why it was important to reach a high water purification level, including the calculation of water aggressiveness and corrosivity indicators. The carried out test showed that the simple system used before the modernization of the industrial water treatment plant is not sufficient to reach clean and stable water. The authors proposed modernization, including additional processes to improve boiler water quality, and designed new devices for water treatment. As a result of the new idea, groundwater taken as raw water was treated in individual and complex processes, such as pre-aeration, filtration, ion exchange (cation and anion exchange resigns), extra aeration, and extra degassing. The conducted research included chemical analyses of raw and treated water. In the conducted studies, the indirect method of water aggressiveness and corrosivity assessment was applied using mathematical calculation of the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RI), the Larson–Skold Index (LI), and the Singley Index (SI). The results proved that the new proposed processes for the boiler feed water treatment station allow reaching a high water quality and low level of water aggressiveness and corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Analysis of the Structure of Water Demand with the Example of Selected Buildings
Water 2019, 11(8), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081635 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 995
Abstract
The basis for the designing of water supply devices is knowledge of the distribution of water demand. The only practical tool that utility companies can use to measure water consumption is water meters. The literature part of the article compares the guidelines for [...] Read more.
The basis for the designing of water supply devices is knowledge of the distribution of water demand. The only practical tool that utility companies can use to measure water consumption is water meters. The literature part of the article compares the guidelines for the devices contained in the following directives: EEC (European Economic Community—withdrawn) and Measuring Instruments Directive—MID (applicable at present). The methodology of selecting water meters in accordance with previous and current regulations was also presented. The main purpose of this work was to determine the structure of water demand for selected building objects. Differences between real and literature values of water flows and water demand were determined. It was found that the average consumption in the analyzed buildings was higher then the consumption in Polish Regulation and in the town of Dabrowa Gornicza. The highest level of demand was in the buildings, which were equipped with automatic watering systems. The maximum momentary volumetric flows are also shown. Based on the obtained data, the accuracy of the water meters selection was checked. The calculated daily and hourly peak factors were compared with the values from the literature. The analysis was performed based on current legal acts, technical literature and data obtained from Dabrowskie Wodociagi Sp. z o.o. in Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach to Modelling of Selected Nitrogen Forms Removal from Oily Wastewater in Anaerobic and Aerobic GSBR Process Phases
Water 2019, 11(8), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081594 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Paper presents artificial neural network models (ANN) approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence batch reactor operating with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) in the anaerobic and aerobic phases. Aim of the study was to determine parameters conditioning effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Paper presents artificial neural network models (ANN) approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence batch reactor operating with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) in the anaerobic and aerobic phases. Aim of the study was to determine parameters conditioning effectiveness of selected nitrogen forms removal in GSBR reactor process phases. Models of artificial neural networks were developed separately for N-NH4, N-NO3 and total nitrogen concentration in particular process phases of GSBR reactor. In total, 6 ANN models were presented in this paper. ANN models were made as multilayer perceptron (MLP), which were learned using the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. Developed ANN models indicated variables the most influencing of particular nitrogen forms in aerobic and anaerobic phase of GSBR reactor. Concentration of estimated nitrogen form at the beginning of anaerobic or aerobic phase, depending on ANN model, in all ANN models influenced approximated value. Obtained determination coefficients varied from 0.996 to 0.999 and were depending on estimated nitrogen form and GSBR process phase. Hence, developed ANN models can be used in further studies on modeling of nitrogen forms in anaerobic and aerobic phase of GSBR reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Magnetic Field Usage Supported Filtration Through Different Filter Materials
Water 2019, 11(8), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081584 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Currently, methods of water purification and aqueous solutions leading to effective reduction of introduced chemical compounds into water purification systems have become the subject of research. Physical methods have become an alternative, because by subjecting water and aqueous solutions to UV (ultraviolet) radiation [...] Read more.
Currently, methods of water purification and aqueous solutions leading to effective reduction of introduced chemical compounds into water purification systems have become the subject of research. Physical methods have become an alternative, because by subjecting water and aqueous solutions to UV (ultraviolet) radiation or magnetic fields (MF), either ultrasonic or electric, it is possible to influence the change of structure, which results in changes in the properties of water and aqueous solutions. This paper attempts to verify the influence of a weak magnetic field on the removal of iron and manganese compounds in the filtration process on gravel of 1–2 mm granulation, sand of 0.4–0.8 mm granulation, activated alumina and activated carbon. The conducted research proved that MF has a significant influence on the effectiveness of iron and manganese removal from water in the case of alumina, while in the filtration process through other filter materials the effect of MF was small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Article
Total Internal Reflection of Deep-Ultraviolet Light in a Water Waveguide and Its Application to Water Disinfection Technologies
Water 2019, 11(2), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020294 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
We propose a new disinfection technology based on a novel concept involving the use of a small, deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED); the 265-nm DUV light is coupled to a running-water stream and is guided to a distant position without diffusion due to the [...] Read more.
We propose a new disinfection technology based on a novel concept involving the use of a small, deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV-LED); the 265-nm DUV light is coupled to a running-water stream and is guided to a distant position without diffusion due to the total internal reflection of the DUV light inside the water stream. We demonstrate here the effect of the water waveguide disinfection technique by showing significant inactivation of a contaminated surface with indicator bacteria; this was verified by comparing the results of three disinfection methods: (i) disinfection with DUV light, (ii) disinfection with running water, and (iii) disinfection with the water-waveguide method. We believe that the marriage of the point-source nature of DUV-LED emission and the water-waveguide effect paves the way towards new applications such as water washing technologies that can reduce water consumption more than one order of magnitude without using additional chemicals in a simple manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Case Report
Pollution of Sedimentary Ponds at an Industrial Plant in Janikowo (Poland)
Water 2020, 12(2), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020536 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The aim of the work was to determine whether the waste accumulated on the reclaimed sedimentary pond near the Janikosoda Production Plant in Janikowo is still a source of pollution of groundwater. On one of the ponds near the Production Plant in Janikowo, [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to determine whether the waste accumulated on the reclaimed sedimentary pond near the Janikosoda Production Plant in Janikowo is still a source of pollution of groundwater. On one of the ponds near the Production Plant in Janikowo, three points were located, in which drilling was done up to the bottom of the layer of solid waste. In each point, samples of sediments were taken to determine electrolytic conductivity and chloride concentration. In order to examine the level of groundwater pollution in the area of the Production Plant, four points around the sedimentary ponds were identified, in which regular monitoring of chloride ions has been carried out since the 1980s. Based on analysis, it was concluded that chlorides are leached from the sediments deep into the soil profile by rainwater and, with high probability, also by water seeping from the adjacent slag pond. Sedimentary ponds are still an important source of pollution released into soils and groundwater around the plant. Nevertheless, chloride concentration in solid waste and groundwater in the area of sedimentary ponds has decreased in the last 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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