Next Article in Journal
Using a Tank Model to Determine Hydro-Meteorological Thresholds for Large-Scale Landslides in Taiwan
Next Article in Special Issue
Reliability Analysis of Activated Sludge Process by Means of Biokinetic Modelling and Simulation Results
Previous Article in Journal
Inter-Regional Agricultural Virtual Water Flow in China Based on Volumetric and Impact-Oriented Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Risk Assessment in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in Upper Silesia
Open AccessArticle

The Quality of Stored Rainwater for Washing Purposes

1
Department of Environmental Engineering Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
3
Department of Air Conditioning, Heating, Gas Engineering and Air Protection, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
4
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
5
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute, 01-673 Warsaw, Poland
6
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010252
Received: 18 November 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
The use of rainwater for washing clothes is determined by its amount, composition and quality of washing. Raw rainwater is soft and free of pollution. The collected rainwater already contains pollution present in the atmosphere and washed away from roofs and other surfaces. It can also change its quality when stored in tanks. Washing clothes does not require drinking quality water but just clean, safe water that guarantees effective removal of dirt from fabrics. The study determined the physicochemical and microbiological changes of rainwater characteristics during retention. Rainwater was collected in a standard underground tank for 30 days and water analyses were conducted every 10 days. The possibility of tap water replacement in the household with collected rainwater for ecological clothes washing has been assessed. View Full-Text
Keywords: stored rainwater; RWH system; washing; retention; physicochemical and microbiological changes; Varimax stored rainwater; RWH system; washing; retention; physicochemical and microbiological changes; Varimax
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Struk-Sokołowska, J.; Gwoździej-Mazur, J.; Jadwiszczak, P.; Butarewicz, A.; Ofman, P.; Wdowikowski, M.; Kaźmierczak, B. The Quality of Stored Rainwater for Washing Purposes. Water 2020, 12, 252.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop