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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of the Structure of Water Demand with the Example of Selected Buildings

1
Faculty of Infrastructure and Environment, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
2
The Dabrowa Water Supply Company, 41-300 Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness Conference (ISMO’19), Bialystok, Poland, 22–23 May 2019.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081635
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations–Sustainability–Modernity–Openness in Water Research)
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Abstract

The basis for the designing of water supply devices is knowledge of the distribution of water demand. The only practical tool that utility companies can use to measure water consumption is water meters. The literature part of the article compares the guidelines for the devices contained in the following directives: EEC (European Economic Community—withdrawn) and Measuring Instruments Directive—MID (applicable at present). The methodology of selecting water meters in accordance with previous and current regulations was also presented. The main purpose of this work was to determine the structure of water demand for selected building objects. Differences between real and literature values of water flows and water demand were determined. It was found that the average consumption in the analyzed buildings was higher then the consumption in Polish Regulation and in the town of Dabrowa Gornicza. The highest level of demand was in the buildings, which were equipped with automatic watering systems. The maximum momentary volumetric flows are also shown. Based on the obtained data, the accuracy of the water meters selection was checked. The calculated daily and hourly peak factors were compared with the values from the literature. The analysis was performed based on current legal acts, technical literature and data obtained from Dabrowskie Wodociagi Sp. z o.o. in Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland. View Full-Text
Keywords: water demand; momentary volumetric flow; peak factor; water meters water demand; momentary volumetric flow; peak factor; water meters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kepa, U.; Stepniak, L.; Stanczyk-Mazanek, E.; Chudzik, K. Analysis of the Structure of Water Demand with the Example of Selected Buildings. Water 2019, 11, 1635.

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