New Progress of Groundwater Quantity, Quality and Pollution That Applied Groundwater Modeling Techniques

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 15575

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: numerical simulation and calculation of groundwater; soil and groundwater pollution control and remediation

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Guest Editor
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Interests: groundwater simulation; inverse problem; contaminant hydrogeology; intelligent simulation of water environments; deep learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: groundwater–surface water interaction; nitrogen transport and source trace; groundwater management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is one of the most important components of the water cycle. It has been recognized as the main drinking water and irrigation water source all over the world. Groundwater modeling is the essential method and has been applied in various aspects of the field of groundwater-related issues.  Now groundwater pollution has become an international hotspot. Multi-methods and new technology have been used in the fluid, chemical and heat transport of groundwater. The aim of this Special Issue is to integrate the latest progress and achievements of groundwater simulation technology that is applied in groundwater and related fields.

We invite you to submit your latest research works on subjects including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Transfer and transformation of contamination
  • Subsurface flow, chemical and heat transport
  • Groundwater-surface water interaction and modelling.
  • Modelling saturated/unsaturated flow.
  • Impact of climate change on groundwater.
  • Groundwater recharge estimation.
  • Isotope and tracer methods applied in groundwater.
  • New techniques applied in groundwater modeling

This Special Issue welcome the authors have potential contributions.

Best regards,

Prof. Dr. Nianqing Zhou
Dr. Simin Jiang
Prof. Dr. Xihua Wang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • groundwater modelling
  • saturated/unsaturated flow
  • groundwater pollution
  • groundwater-surface water interaction
  • groundwater recharge
  • groundwater quality
  • climate change
  • flow, chemical and heat transport

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2016 KiB  
Article
Watershed-Scale Shallow Groundwater Anthropogenic Nitrate Source, Loading, and Contamination Assessment in a Typical Wheat Production Region: Case Study in Yiluo River Watershed, Middle of China
by Xihua Wang, Shunqing Jia, Zejun Liu and Boyang Mao
Water 2022, 14(23), 3979; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233979 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Nitrate pollution in groundwater has become a global concern for agriculture and regional ecology. However, tracing the spatiotemporal groundwater nitrate pollution sources, calculating the total nitrogen loading, and assessing contamination at the watershed scale have not been well documented. In this study, 20 [...] Read more.
Nitrate pollution in groundwater has become a global concern for agriculture and regional ecology. However, tracing the spatiotemporal groundwater nitrate pollution sources, calculating the total nitrogen loading, and assessing contamination at the watershed scale have not been well documented. In this study, 20 groundwater samplings from 2020 to 2021 (in dry and wet seasons) on the Yiluo River watershed in middle China were collected. Tracing groundwater nitrate pollution sources, calculating total nitrogen loading, and assessing contamination using dual isotopes (18ONO3 and 15NNO3), conservation of mass, and the nitrate pollution index (NPI), respectively. The results indicated that there were three nitrate sources in groundwater: (1) manure and sewage waste input (MSWI), (2) sediment nitrogen input (SNI), and (3) agriculture chemical fertilizer input (ACFI) in the Yiluo River watershed. ACFI and SNI were the main groundwater nitrogen pollution sources. The average nitrogen loading percentages of ACFI, SNI, and MSWI in the whole watershed were 94.7%, 4.34%, and 0.96%, respectively. The total nitrogen loading in the Yiluo River watershed was 7,256,835.99 kg/year, 4,084,870.09 kg/year in downstream areas, 2,121,938.93 kg/year in midstream areas, and 1,050,026.95 kg/year in upstream areas. Sixty percent of groundwater in the Yiluo River watershed has been polluted by nitrate. Nitrate pollution in midstream areas is more severe. Nitrite pollution was more serious in the wet season than in the dry season. The results of this study can provide useful information for watershed-scale groundwater nitrogen pollution control and treatment. Full article
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21 pages, 4870 KiB  
Article
Distribution Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Highly Mineralized Groundwater in the Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia
by Qiuyao Dong, Jincheng Li, Yanpei Cheng, Yu Ren, Dong Zhang, Dong Wang, Xiaoyue Sun and Wengeng Cao
Water 2022, 14(20), 3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203247 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
As the largest artesian irrigation area in northern China, the Hetao Plain is also one of the major grain-producing areas in China. Meanwhile, there is a large amount of highly mineralized groundwater resulting in the soil salinization and desertification in this region. In [...] Read more.
As the largest artesian irrigation area in northern China, the Hetao Plain is also one of the major grain-producing areas in China. Meanwhile, there is a large amount of highly mineralized groundwater resulting in the soil salinization and desertification in this region. In addition, this study also uses the traditional hydro-geochemical methods to investigate the spatial evolution characteristics and formation mechanisms of highly mineralized groundwater. The results indicate that there is a large amount of highly mineralized groundwater (salinity > 3 g/L) in the shallow aquifer over the Hetao Plain. As far as the spatial patterns are concerned, there are significant spatial differences. In accordance with the structural, paleogeographic, landform, and hydrogeological conditions, the highly mineralized groundwater in the Hetao Plain can be divided into five zones, namely, the front fan depression, the north bank of the Yellow River, Xishanzui, Hasuhai in the Hubao Plain, and Dalad banner on the south bank of the Yellow River. Among them, the highly mineralized groundwater of Xishanzui exhibits the largest value of the salinity > 10 g/L. The main cations are Mg2+ and Na+, while the main anions are Cl and SO42−. Moreover, the groundwater in the highly mineralized area contains a large amount of I. According to the analysis of Piper, Gibbs diagrams of groundwater, the proportion coefficients of various components and the indication of isotope, it can be seen that most of the chemical ions in groundwater in the highly mineralized zone come from evaporation-concentration, which are mainly affected by climate, sedimentary environment, hydrogeological conditions and hydrology. The source of high mineralization in Xishanzui are different from other high mineralization regions, and the highly mineralized groundwater in Xishanzui is formed by the infestation of deep underground salt brine. These results can provide scientific basis for the rational allocation of regional water resources and the promotion of water resources development and utilization. Full article
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21 pages, 6047 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Model and Experimental Research on Determining Aquifer Permeability Coefficients by Slug Test under the Influence of Positive Well-Skin Effect
by Yanrong Zhao, Haonan Wang, Pei Lv, Xiaosong Dong, Yong Huang, Jinguo Wang and Yikai Yang
Water 2022, 14(19), 3089; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193089 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
In the process of slug test in the field, mud and debris may infiltrate into the aquifer during the formation of the test well, and a poorly permeable annulus area appears around the test well wall. This is called the positive well-skin effect, [...] Read more.
In the process of slug test in the field, mud and debris may infiltrate into the aquifer during the formation of the test well, and a poorly permeable annulus area appears around the test well wall. This is called the positive well-skin effect, which can have a significant impact on the results of slug tests due to the characteristics of a slug test. Therefore, to carry out the research on the determination of aquifer permeability coefficients by slug test under the influence of positive well-skin effect, a mathematical model of a slug test considering the positive well-skin effect was constructed. The Laplace transform method and the AWG algorithm were used to solve for a series of standard curves, and specific steps were given for calculating aquifer permeability coefficients by slug test under the influence of positive well-skin effect. Meanwhile, an indoor test model with positive well-skin effect was constructed, then several sets of slug tests and pumping tests with different excitation strengths were carried out. Based on this study, the presence of positive well-skin layer had a great impact on the aquifer permeability coefficient determined from both the pumping test and Kipp model of slug test, resulting in smaller results. The HWS model overcomes the influence of positive well-skin effect. This will further improve the theory of slug test, increase the accuracy of slug test in determining the permeability coefficient, and promote the application scope of slug test. It is therefore possible to discern the well-skin factor and determine the aquifer permeability coefficient by fitting the slug test data to a standard curve. Full article
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25 pages, 9289 KiB  
Article
A Novel Slug Heat Test Theoretical and Indoor Model Research for Determining Thermal Property Parameters of Aquifers and Rock-Soil Skeletons
by Yanrong Zhao, Yufeng Wei, Rong Rong, Xiaosong Dong, Zhihao Zhang, Yong Huang and Jinguo Wang
Water 2022, 14(19), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193020 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
As important parameters for characterizing heat transfer, thermal property parameters of aquifers and rock-soil skeletons have important research significance in the development and utilization of geothermal resources. The slug heat test is inspired by the slug test, and the heat is instantaneously excited [...] Read more.
As important parameters for characterizing heat transfer, thermal property parameters of aquifers and rock-soil skeletons have important research significance in the development and utilization of geothermal resources. The slug heat test is inspired by the slug test, and the heat is instantaneously excited in the test well so as to change the temperature of test section in the test well instantaneously. Based on the thermal radial convection-dispersion theory and the principle of heat conservation, the theoretical model of the slug heat test is established, and the model is solved by Laplace transform and inverse transform to obtain multiple sets of standard curves under different conditions. The slug heat tests were conducted in the indoor model, the slug heat test data under different hydrodynamic conditions were fitted with the standard curves and the thermal property parameters, including effective thermal conductivity, stagnant thermal conductivity, thermal mechanical dispersion coefficient, thermal dispersive degree, thermal diffusivity, heat capacity of aquifer, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of rock-soil skeletons, were accurately obtained. The test results are in good agreement with the empirical values. Meanwhile, the effective thermal conductivity of the aquifer also clearly increases with the increase of flow rate. The excitation temperature difference had little effect on the effective thermal conductivity of the aquifer. At the same time, numerical simulation methods are used to establish a numerical model consistent with the indoor test model, and the numerical model is assigned with the thermal property parameters obtained from the indoor slug heat test, and the measured values of temperature changes in the test well during the slug heat test under different hydrodynamic and excitation strength conditions are compared with the simulated values for verification. The research results show that the slug heat test has the characteristics of high applicability, simple operation and rapid testing, and can effectively determine the thermal properties parameters of aquifers and rock-soil skeletons. Full article
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15 pages, 4001 KiB  
Article
Site Investigation and Remediation of Sulfate-Contaminated Groundwater Using Integrated Hydraulic Capture Techniques
by Nianqing Zhou, Shuaishuai Lu, Yi Cai and Shan Zhao
Water 2022, 14(19), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14192989 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
Inorganic pollution is widespread in groundwater, and sulfate pollution is one of the important types, which has an important impact on the ecological environment and human health. Elevated concentrations of sulfate ion pollutants often come from the sewage discharge of chemical plants. This [...] Read more.
Inorganic pollution is widespread in groundwater, and sulfate pollution is one of the important types, which has an important impact on the ecological environment and human health. Elevated concentrations of sulfate ion pollutants often come from the sewage discharge of chemical plants. This study takes a sulfate-contaminated site in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China, as the research object. Nine boreholes were arranged along the sewage discharge ditches in the site to collect and analyze soil samples and groundwater samples in layers. The concentration of pollutants and the change with depths were determined; the maximum concentration of sulfate ion was 10,330 mg L−1 in groundwater, and the maximum pollution depth was no more than 8 m. A hydraulic barrier was carried out to cut off the pollution sources. Based on a comprehensive understanding of the hydrogeological conditions and pollution degree of the site, the hydraulic capture technique was used to control the water pumping and injection volume, so that the scope of the pollution plume was gradually reduced. The pumping wells were arranged in the polluted area, and the water injection wells were arranged at the outer edge of the pollution zone. According to the calculation of the single well water inflow and influence radius, 28 pumping wells and 66 water injection wells were needed to be arranged on the site. The treatment process was divided into four stages according to the following steps: water pumping, water injection, stoppage of water injection, stoppage of water pumping, collecting water samples after the water level recovered, and the completion stage of treatment. The above process was repeated twice. Chemical precipitation was employed in the last step. The results of the remediation showed that the sulfate concentrations in 54 percent of the samples decreased significantly to less than 100 mg L−1, and the rest were between 100 and 200 mg L−1 after the treatment process. Two pumping wells with serious pollution were selected as long-term monitoring wells, and two-year continuous monitoring results showed that sulfate concentrations in the monitoring wells ranged from 110 to 220 mg L−1, indicating that integrated groundwater remediation techniques are more effective and more reliable than one single technique. Full article
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19 pages, 4424 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty Analysis of Numerical Simulation of Seawater Intrusion Using Deep Learning-Based Surrogate Model
by Tiansheng Miao, He Huang, Jiayuan Guo, Guanghua Li, Yu Zhang and Naijia Chen
Water 2022, 14(18), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182933 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Seawater intrusion is expected to cause a shortage of freshwater resources in coastal areas which will hinder regional economic and social development. The consequences of global climate change include rising sea levels, which also affect the results of the predictions of seawater intrusion [...] Read more.
Seawater intrusion is expected to cause a shortage of freshwater resources in coastal areas which will hinder regional economic and social development. The consequences of global climate change include rising sea levels, which also affect the results of the predictions of seawater intrusion that are based on simulations. It is thus important to examine the impact of the randomness in the rise in sea levels on the uncertainty in the results of numerical simulations that are used to predict seawater intrusion. Deep learning has lately emerged as a popular area of research that has been used to establish surrogate models in this context. In this study, the authors have used deep learning to determine the complex and nonlinear mapping relationship between the inputs and outputs of a three-dimensional variable-density numerical model of seawater intrusion in the case of a limited number of training samples, wherein, this has improved the accuracy of the approximation of the surrogate models. We used the rise in sea level as a random variable, and then applied the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of randomness on the uncertainty in the results of the numerical predictions of seawater intrusion. Statistical analyses and interval estimations of the Cl concentration and the area of seawater intrusion were conducted at typical observation wells. The work that is here provides a reliable reference for decision making in the area. Full article
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14 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Hydrogeochemical Simulation Research of Groundwater in the Guohe River Basin (Henan Section)
by Furong Yu, Dongxu Zhou, Zhiping Li and Xiao Li
Water 2022, 14(9), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091461 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
With the implementation of the policy of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, the Guohe River Basin, which is close to the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin, is also an important part of future development. Mathematical statistics, [...] Read more.
With the implementation of the policy of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, the Guohe River Basin, which is close to the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin, is also an important part of future development. Mathematical statistics, the Piper diagram, ion proportion coefficient method, Gibbs diagram and reverse hydrogeochemical simulation are used to analyze the chemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater in the Guohe River Basin (Henan Section). The dominant ions in the study area are HCO3 and Na+, and the three-layer aquifer has obvious zoning characteristics. The results show that the chemical types of shallow groundwater in this area are HCO3−Na • Mg • Ca, intermediate HCO3-Na and deep HCO3−Na. Using the ion proportion coefficient method, it is found that Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the groundwater aquifer undergo cation exchange in the aquifer. According to the reverse hydrogeochemical simulation, gypsum in the three aquifers is in a dissolved state, carbonate and sulfide ores in the shallow layer are dissolved, dolomite and halite in the intermediate layer are dissolved, calcite and sulfide ores are precipitated and carbonate, halite and sulfide ores in the deep layer are precipitated; the hydrogeochemical evolution model is established to find that Ca2+ in groundwater displaces Na+ in the aqueous medium. This research can provide a scientific basis for the rational development and utilization of groundwater and ecological protection in the Yellow River Basin. Full article
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15 pages, 5145 KiB  
Article
Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Recycled Lead Smelting Sites
by Furong Yu, Jianuo Zhang, Zhiping Li and Songtao Liu
Water 2022, 14(9), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091445 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
In this study, 258 soil samples were collected to determine the total content and each speciation fraction of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the soil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and their [...] Read more.
In this study, 258 soil samples were collected to determine the total content and each speciation fraction of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the soil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and their potential ecological and human health risks were assessed using the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), risk assessment code (RAC), and health risk assessment. The results showed that: (1) The mean concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) (mg/kg) in the surface soil of the site were in the order of Pb (1921.77) > Mn (598.21) > Zn (162.29) > Cr (84.65) > Cu (15.16) > Cd (1.8), with the mean values of Cd and Pb exceeding the local background values by 164 and 725 times. (2) In the vertical direction, Cr, Mn, and Pb have no tendency to migrate downward; Cd and Zn demonstrate a strong ability to migrate. (3) The bioavailability of Cd is the highest in the surface soil, followed by Mn and Pb; in the soil below a depth of 0.5 m, the prevalent form of HMs is its residual state (F4). (4) The degree of Igeo pollution of each HMs is: Pb > Cd > Zn > Cr = Mn = Cu, where Pb pollutes the environment to an extremely contaminated level and Cd causes heavy pollution thereof. According to the RAC results, Cd in the surface soil poses a high risk to the environment, and Pb and Mn pose a moderate risk; meanwhile, with the increase of depth, the risk posed by Cd and Mn to the ecosystem shows a tendency to increase. Health risk evaluation indicated that respiratory intake was the main pathway affecting the carcinogenic risk (CR) and hazard quotient (HQ) of HMs, where Pb and Cr were the main hazard factors for non-CR and Cr was the main carcinogenic factor. This study can provide scientific guidance and technical support for soil risk control or remediation of HM-contaminated sites. Full article
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