Special Issue "Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maria Isabel Freire Ribeiro Ferreira
Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: Irrigation scheduling; Irrigation planning; Evapotranspiration; Water stress; Roots behaviour
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Arturo Alvino
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences University of Molise, (I-86100) Campobasso, Italy
Interests: agronomy; plant-water relationship; precision agriculture
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of the journal Water will present the state of art of the factors (ecological, physiological, physical, agronomic, economic, genetic and socio-economic factors, etc.) affecting evapotranspiration and irrigation strategies. Appropriate and precise estimations of evapotranspiration (water consumed) and water supplied to crops (rainfall and irrigation) may contribute positively to food security and food safety, while contributing to climate change mitigation and the reduction of groundwater pollution.

Herewith a non-exhaustive list of topics related to this Special Issue (in alphabetical order):

  • Crop coefficients estimations (traditional and innovative methods, as with remote sensing,
  • Crop sensors for estimating crop water status,
  • Economics of irrigation water management,
  • Effective rainfall,
  • Effects of reduced amount of soil organic matter on irrigation strategies,
  • Genetic studies to improve water-use efficiency of cultivated crops for different purposes (agriculture, landscapes, land degradation, etc.).
  • Irrigation management for specialty crops
  • Irrigation management for urban horticulture,
  • Irrigation water quality,
  • Measuring soil moisture and soil water holding capacity,
  • Partitioning of evapotranspiration in remote sensing-based models,
  • Precision irrigation for farm sustainability and environmental protection,
  • Soil conditioners and mulches for enhancing soil properties, in particular soil water availability,
  • Solar fertigation and other environmentally-friendly irrigation methods, and
  • Variable rate irrigation,

Each of the above topics may contribute in meeting crop demand for optimum water productivity. The Guest Editors are confident that scientists will join this Special Issue by submitting papers on “Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies”.

Prof. Dr. Maria Isabel Freire Ribeiro Ferreira
Prof. Dr. Arturo Alvino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Irrigation scheduling
  • Irrigation planning
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Agronomy
  • Plant-water relationship

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Response and Modeling of Hybrid Maize Seed Vigor to Water Deficit at Different Growth Stages
Water 2020, 12(11), 3289; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113289 - 23 Nov 2020
Abstract
Research is imperative to predict seed vigor of hybrid maize production under water deficit in arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 in arid areas of northwestern China to investigate the effects of different irrigation strategies at various growth stages [...] Read more.
Research is imperative to predict seed vigor of hybrid maize production under water deficit in arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 in arid areas of northwestern China to investigate the effects of different irrigation strategies at various growth stages with drip irrigation under film mulching on grain yield, kernel weight, seed protein content, and seed vigor of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). Water deficit at vegetative, flowering, and grain-filling stages was considered and a total of 16 irrigation treatments was applied. A total of 12 indices of germination percentage, germination index (GI), shoot length (SL), and root length (RL) under different germination conditions (standard germination and accelerated aging); electrical conductivity (EC) of the leachate; and activities of peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in seeds were measured and analyzed using the combinational evaluation method (CEM). Furthermore, five water production functions (Blank, Stewart, Rao, Jensen, and Minhas) were used to predict seed vigor evaluated by CEM under water deficit. The results showed that leachate EC was higher under water deficit than that under sufficient irrigation. The SL, RL, and GI of different germination conditions increased under water deficit at the flowering stage. The Rao model was considered the best fitted model to predict the vigor of hybrid maize seeds under water deficit, and an appropriate water deficit at the flowering stage is recommended to ensure high seed vigor of hybrid maize production with drip irrigation under film mulching. Our findings would be useful for reducing crop water use while ensuring seed vigor for hybrid maize production in arid areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Interannual Variations of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency over an Oasis Cropland in Arid Regions of North-Western China
Water 2020, 12(5), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051239 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The efficient use of limited water resources and improving the water use efficiency (WUE) of arid agricultural systems is becoming one of the greatest challenges in agriculture production and global food security because of the shortage of water resources and increasing demand for [...] Read more.
The efficient use of limited water resources and improving the water use efficiency (WUE) of arid agricultural systems is becoming one of the greatest challenges in agriculture production and global food security because of the shortage of water resources and increasing demand for food in the world. In this study, we attempted to investigate the interannual trends of evapotranspiration and WUE and the responses of biophysical factors and water utilization strategies over a main cropland ecosystem (i.e., seeded maize, Zea mays L.) in arid regions of North-Western China based on continuous eddy-covariance measurements. This paper showed that ecosystem WUE and canopy WUE of the maize ecosystem were 1.90 ± 0.17 g C kg−1 H2O and 2.44 ± 0.21 g C kg−1 H2O over the observation period, respectively, with a clear variation due to a change of irrigation practice. Traditional flood irrigation generally results in over-irrigation, providing more water than actual crop requirements. Unlike flood irrigation, which can infiltrate into deep soil layers, drip irrigation can only influence the shallow soil moisture, which can lead to decreases of soil moisture of approximately 27–32% and 36–42% compared with flood irrigation for shallow and deep layers, respectively. Additionally, drip irrigation decreases evapotranspiration by 13% and transpiration by 11–14%, leading to increases in ecosystem and canopy WUE of 9–14% and 11%, respectively, compared to the traditional irrigation practice. Therefore, the drip irrigation strategy is an effective method to reduce irrigation water use and increase crop WUE in arid regions. Our study provides guidance to water-saving cultivation systems and has implications for sustainable water resources management and agriculture development in water-limited regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance of a Shallow Water Table Grassland
Water 2020, 12(2), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020523 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Extending instantaneous latent heat flux to daily, monthly, or even yearly evapotranspiration (ET) is a fundamental issue in using remote sensing to estimate ET at local and regional scales. In this study, the extending parameterizations of the surface energy balance of a mid-latitude [...] Read more.
Extending instantaneous latent heat flux to daily, monthly, or even yearly evapotranspiration (ET) is a fundamental issue in using remote sensing to estimate ET at local and regional scales. In this study, the extending parameterizations of the surface energy balance of a mid-latitude grassland with shallow water table (SWT) at diurnal and seasonal time scales are examined based on data measured by the eddy covariance system and automated weather station from Wageningen University from June 2014 to October 2018. The results show that the ratio of turbulent heat flux to available surface energy (often called budget closure rate) ranges between 0.86 and 0.93 for warm times (March to October), and between 0.59 and 0.77 for cold times (November to February the following year). The parameterization models used to approximate the surface albedo and evaporative fraction (EF) are also evaluated. Although obvious variation under clear skies during daytime are observed, the constant EF and albedo method provided an acceptable estimation of the daily scale ET with an underestimation of about 6–8% for the grassland with SWT and parameterization of diurnal correction shows little improvement in both the bias and RMSE. The progression of daily ET shows a seasonal cycle, which follows the variation of the net radiation flux. These results will be helpful for estimating ET at daily and long temporal scales based on satellite remote sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameterization and Application of Stanghellini Model for Estimating Greenhouse Cucumber Transpiration
Water 2020, 12(2), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020517 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Accurate estimation of transpiration (Tr) is important in the development of precise irrigation scheduling and to enhance water-use efficiency in agricultural production. In this study, the air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH) were measured [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of transpiration (Tr) is important in the development of precise irrigation scheduling and to enhance water-use efficiency in agricultural production. In this study, the air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH) were measured at three different heights (0.5, 1.0, and 1.8 m above the ground near the plant canopy) parameterize aerodynamic resistance (ra) based on the heat transfer coefficient method and to estimate Tr using the Stanghellini model (SM) during two growing seasons of cucumber in a greenhouse. The canopy resistance (rc) was parameterized by an exponential relationship of stomata resistance and solar radiation, and the estimated Tr was compared to the values measured with lysimeters. After parameterization of ra and rc, the efficiency (EF) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimated Tr by the SM based on micrometeorological data at a height of 0.5 m were 95% and 18 W m−2, respectively, while the corresponding values were 86% and 29 W m−2 at a height of 1.8 m for the autumn planting season. For the spring planting season, the EF and RMSE were 92% and 34 W m−2 at a height of 0.5 m, while the corresponding values were 81% and 56 W m−2 at a height of 1.8 m, respectively. This work demonstrated that when micrometeorological data within the canopy was applied alongside the data measured above the canopy, the SM led to better agreement with the lysimeter measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Maize Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Penman-Monteith Equation and Modeling the Bulk Canopy Resistance
Water 2019, 11(12), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122650 - 15 Dec 2019
Abstract
Some techniques, such as the Katerji and Perrier approach, estimate the bulk canopy resistance (rc) as a function of meteorological variables and then calculate the hourly evapotranspiration using the Penman–Monteith equation, so that traditional crop coefficients are not needed. As [...] Read more.
Some techniques, such as the Katerji and Perrier approach, estimate the bulk canopy resistance (rc) as a function of meteorological variables and then calculate the hourly evapotranspiration using the Penman–Monteith equation, so that traditional crop coefficients are not needed. As far as we know, there are no published studies regarding using this method for a maize crop. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate the canopy resistance for an irrigated continuous maize crop in the Midwestern United States (US). In addition, we determined the effect of derivation year, bowen ratio, and the extent of canopy. In this study we derive empirical coefficients necessary to estimate rc for maize, five years (2001–2005) were considered. A split-sample approach was taken, in which each year’s data was taken as a potential calibration data set and validation was accomplished while using the other four years of data. We grouped the data by green leaf area index (GLAI) and the Bowen ratio (β) by parsing the data into a 3 × 3 grouping: LAI (≥2, ≥3, and ≥4) and |β| (≤0.1, ≤0.2, and ≤0.3). The best fit data indicated reasonably good results for all nine groupings, so that the calibration coefficients derived for the conditions LAI ≥ 2 and |β| ≤ 0.3 were taken in light of the longer span associated with LAI ≥ 2 and the larger number of hours. For the calibrations in this subgroup, the results indicate that the annual empirical coefficients for rc are nearly the same and equally effective, regardless of the year used for calibration. Our validation included all the daytime hours regardless of β. Thus, it was concluded that the calibration at our site was independent of the derivation year. Knowledge of the Bowen ratio was useful in calibration, but accurate ET estimates (validation) can be obtained without knowledge of the Bowen ratio. Validation resulted in hourly ET estimates for irrigated maize that explained 83% to 86% of the variation in measured ET with an accuracy of ± 0.2 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Measuring and Modelling Soil Evaporation in an Irrigated Olive Orchard to Improve Water Management
Water 2019, 11(12), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122529 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate soil evaporation (Es) in an intensive olive orchard. Measurements of Es were performed for 19 days using microlysimeters, during summers 2010, 2011 and 2012 in southeast Portugal. In order to relate each area [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate soil evaporation (Es) in an intensive olive orchard. Measurements of Es were performed for 19 days using microlysimeters, during summers 2010, 2011 and 2012 in southeast Portugal. In order to relate each area type to radiation transmissivity, ground cover measurements were performed over the years. These data were used to calibrate and validate an empirical model for Es estimation. Measured daily average Es was 0.55 ± 0.14 mm; the model estimated 0.53 ± 0.18 mm for the same days, with a determination coefficient of 0.94. This corresponds to 9% of the reference evapotranspiration, representing well the overall values estimated for the summer, except for days after rain. Regarding the wet area, measured Es for the validation data set was 2.42 L/(m2 of wet area), the estimated was 2.49 L/(m2 of wet area). Measured average Es in dry area (validation data set) was 0.42 L/(m2 of dry area), estimated Es was 0.43 L/(m2 of dry area). The large exposed dry area had a significant contribution to evaporation. On average, estimated Es during a typical Mediterranean summer was 10% of reference evapotranspiration, representing 30% of transpiration and 23% of evapotranspiration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation on Biometric Growth, Physiological Response, and Essential Oil of Mentha spicata (L.)
Water 2019, 11(11), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112264 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A field experiment was performed on spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) under different irrigation regimes in a hilly area of Southern Italy. Objectives of the study include evaluating the physiological and biometrical response of mint from plant establishment up to its complete maturation, [...] Read more.
A field experiment was performed on spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) under different irrigation regimes in a hilly area of Southern Italy. Objectives of the study include evaluating the physiological and biometrical response of mint from plant establishment up to its complete maturation, as well as the yield composition in essential oil at two different dates. Increasing levels of water stress affected later developing leaves and plant’s water status and net photosynthesis (from the beginning of stress (DAT 63), while affecting negatively the biometric response very soon and significantly from 35 DAT. Photosynthesis limitation played a critical role from DAT 53 on, namely later, in the harvest period (DAT 35–70). Under severe water stress, crop restricted water losses by modulating stomatal closure and, at harvest, showing lowered mesophyll conductance. Irrigation treatments did not affect the concentration of organic compounds, while the yield of essential oils was negatively affected by water stress due to reduced crop growth, in terms of total and leaf biomass, leaf area index (LAI) and crop height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
The Performance of Satellite-Based Actual Evapotranspiration Products and the Assessment of Irrigation Efficiency in Egypt
Water 2019, 11(9), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091913 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Monitoring of crop water consumption, also known as actual evapotranspiration (ETa), is crucial for the prudent use of limited freshwater resources. Remote-sensing-based algorithms have become a popular approach for providing spatio-temporal information on ETa. Satellite-based ETa products are widely available. However, identifying an [...] Read more.
Monitoring of crop water consumption, also known as actual evapotranspiration (ETa), is crucial for the prudent use of limited freshwater resources. Remote-sensing-based algorithms have become a popular approach for providing spatio-temporal information on ETa. Satellite-based ETa products are widely available. However, identifying an adequate product remains a challenge due to validation data scarcity. This study developed an assessment process to identify superior ETa products in agricultural areas in Egypt. The land cover product (MCD12Q1) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was evaluated and used to detect agricultural areas. The performances of three ETa products, namely: Earth Engine Evapotranspiration Flux (EEFlux), USGS-FEWS NET SSEBop ETa monthly product, and MODIS ETa monthly product (MOD16A2), were evaluated. The ETa values of these products were compared to previous ETa observations and evaluated using the integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) on a seasonal and annual basis. Finally, the irrigation efficiency throughout Egypt was calculated based on the annual Relative Water Supply (RWS) index. Results reveal that the SSEBop monthly product has the best performance in Egypt, followed by the MOD16A2. The EEFlux overestimated ETa values by 36%. RWS had a range of 0.96–1.47, indicating high irrigation efficiency. The findings reported herein can assist in improving irrigation water management in Egypt and the Nile Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Capability of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Predict Soil Water Retention and Related Soil Properties in an Irrigated Lowland District of Southern Italy
Water 2019, 11(8), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081712 - 17 Aug 2019
Abstract
In this study, we examined the potential of vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for the evaluation and prediction of soil water retention at field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) and related basic soil properties [organic [...] Read more.
In this study, we examined the potential of vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for the evaluation and prediction of soil water retention at field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) and related basic soil properties [organic carbon (OC), sand, silt, and clay contents] in an agricultural irrigated land of southern Italy. Soil properties were determined in the laboratory with reference to the Italian Official Methods for Soil Analysis. Vis-NIR reflectance spectra were measured in the laboratory, using a high-resolution spectroradiometer. All soil variables, with the exception of silt, evidently affected some specific spectral features. Multivariate calibrations were performed to predict the soil properties from reflectance spectra. PLSR was used to calibrate the spectral data using two-thirds of samples for calibration and one-third for validation. Spectroscopic data were pre-processed [multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variance (SNV), wavelet detrending (WD), first and second derivative transformation, and filtering] prior to multivariate calibration. The results revealed very good models (2.0 < RPD < 2.5) for the prediction of FC, PWP and sand, and excellent (RPD > 2.5) models for the prediction of clay and OC, whereas a poor (RPD < 1.4) prediction model was obtained for silt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
METRIC and WaPOR Estimates of Evapotranspiration over the Lake Urmia Basin: Comparative Analysis and Composite Assessment
Water 2019, 11(8), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081647 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of water and energy balance. In this study, we compare two ET products, suitable for regional analysis at high spatial resolution: The recent WaPOR product developed by FAO and METRIC algorithm. WaPOR is based on ETLook, [...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of water and energy balance. In this study, we compare two ET products, suitable for regional analysis at high spatial resolution: The recent WaPOR product developed by FAO and METRIC algorithm. WaPOR is based on ETLook, which is a two-source model and relies on microwave images. WaPOR is unique as it has no limitation under cloudy days, but METRIC is limited by clouds. METRIC and WaPOR are more sensitive to land surface temperature and soil moisture, respectively. Using two years (2010 and 2014) of data over Lake Urmia basin, we show that in most areas, ET from METRIC is higher than WaPOR and the difference has an ascending trend with the elevation. The ET of lysimeter station is fairly consistent with METRIC based on a single observation. Our analysis using NDVI and land use maps suggests that the histogram of ET from WaPOR might be more realistic than METRIC, but not its amount. The fraction of ET to precipitation in rainfed agriculture areas shows that WaPOR is more accurate than METRIC, mainly because in the absence of other water resources such as ground water annual ET cannot exceed annual precipitation. In contrast, METRIC produces a more realistic estimate than WaPOR over irrigated farms. The results suggest that the two products can complement each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaporation and Soil Surface Resistance of the Water Storage Pit Irrigation Trees in the Loess Plateau
Water 2019, 11(4), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040648 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
As an important step for formulating a water-saving agricultural strategy, it is essential to make quantitative calculations for orchard soil evaporation and confirm its inner mechanism, so as to reduce ineffective water consumption and improve the utilization efficiency of water resources. To reveal [...] Read more.
As an important step for formulating a water-saving agricultural strategy, it is essential to make quantitative calculations for orchard soil evaporation and confirm its inner mechanism, so as to reduce ineffective water consumption and improve the utilization efficiency of water resources. To reveal the effect of water storage pits under water storage pit irrigation conditions in orchard soil evaporation, micro-lysimeters were used to measure the soil evaporation in two different forms (soil surface evaporation and pit wall evaporation) under diverse irrigation systems using water storage pit irrigation in the apple growth period of 2018. To calculate the orchard soil evaporation of water storage pit irrigation, the pit irrigation coefficient was introduced and a model was constructed. To illustrate the inner mechanism of orchard soil evaporation, the soil surface resistance under water storage pit irrigation conditions was analyzed and calculated quantitatively. The results show that: (1) introducing the pit irrigation coefficient can boost the calculation precision of the orchard soil evaporation under water storage pit irrigation conditions; (2) when applying the soil evaporation of the water storage pit irrigation model for calculation of the orchard soil evaporation, R 2 can reach 0.92; and (3) the mechanisms of the two orchard soil evaporation forms under water storage pit irrigation are very different. When soil surface evaporation and pit wall evaporation were calculated by the soil surface resistance of water storage pit irrigation model, R 2 values were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration and Plant Irrigation Strategies)
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