As an important step for formulating a water-saving agricultural strategy, it is essential to make quantitative calculations for orchard soil evaporation and confirm its inner mechanism, so as to reduce ineffective water consumption and improve the utilization efficiency of water resources. To reveal the effect of water storage pits under water storage pit irrigation conditions in orchard soil evaporation, micro-lysimeters were used to measure the soil evaporation in two different forms (soil surface evaporation and pit wall evaporation) under diverse irrigation systems using water storage pit irrigation in the apple growth period of 2018. To calculate the orchard soil evaporation of water storage pit irrigation, the pit irrigation coefficient was introduced and a model was constructed. To illustrate the inner mechanism of orchard soil evaporation, the soil surface resistance under water storage pit irrigation conditions was analyzed and calculated quantitatively. The results show that: (1) introducing the pit irrigation coefficient can boost the calculation precision of the orchard soil evaporation under water storage pit irrigation conditions; (2) when applying the soil evaporation of the water storage pit irrigation model for calculation of the orchard soil evaporation,
can reach 0.92; and (3) the mechanisms of the two orchard soil evaporation forms under water storage pit irrigation are very different. When soil surface evaporation and pit wall evaporation were calculated by the soil surface resistance of water storage pit irrigation model,
values were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively.
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