New Challenges in the Planning, Design, Construction and Operation of Reservoirs in the Context of Climate Change

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 February 2023) | Viewed by 22188

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute, Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: water resources management; hydrology of lakes and water reservoirs; water balance; hydraulic contacts between surface- and groundwater; lake and river water temperature changes, hydrology of mining areas; restoration of post-mining areas; eutrophication and protect of lakes and water reservoirs

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Guest Editor
Department of Land Improvement, Environmental Development and Spatial Management, Faculty of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94, 60-649 Poznań, Poland
Interests: water resources; reservoirs; eutrophication; overgrowth process; heavy metals; geochemistry; GIS; remote sensing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The climate change observed in recent years has led to the occurrence of extreme phenomena, such as droughts and flash floods. In addition, the development of industry and agriculture leads to increased demand for water. In order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to cover the increasing demand for water, reservoirs are being built all over the world. On existing reservoirs, new water management rules are being introduced to optimize the use of water resources. Reservoirs created in post-mining pits, which offer the possibility of retaining water without interfering with river valleys, are also increasing in importance. In addition to their water supply functions, reservoirs have other important social, environmental, and economic functions. They are used for recreation, angling, fishing, and hydropower purposes.

From their inception, reservoirs are subject to degradation processes. An excessive supply of nutrients leads to eutrophication of waters and their gradual overgrowing, while a change in hydraulic conditions leads to sedimentation of debris and shallowing of reservoirs, and thus to a loss of retention capacity. The construction of retention reservoirs in river valleys causes a break in the continuity of the river, which limits the possibility of the migration of aquatic organisms. As a consequence, new solutions are being sought for the construction of retention reservoirs and optimal water management methods in order to meet the growing demand for water, minimize their impact on the environment, and extend their lifetime.

This Special Issue invites authors to contribute reviews and research papers on the broad issues of reservoir design, construction, operation, and maintenance to minimize the effects of climate change.

The Special Issue aims to publish research results from the following areas:

  • Technical and environmental challenges of reservoir construction;
  • Operation and maintenance of reservoirs;
  • Water management in reservoirs from the perspective of climate change;
  • Use of reservoirs for water supply, energy, recreation, fishing, and angling;
  • Degradation of retention reservoirs;
  • Environmental effects of reservoir construction;
  • Establishment and operation of tailings ponds.

Dr. Bogumił Nowak
Dr. Joanna Jaskuła
Prof. Dr. Mariusz Sojka
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dam
  • reservoir
  • construction
  • operation
  • maintenance
  • water management
  • degradation
  • environmental impact
  • sediments
  • water quality

Published Papers (11 papers)

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20 pages, 6601 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Controlled Tile Drainage in Reducing Outflow and Nitrogen at the Scale of the Drainage System
by Barbara Kęsicka, Michał Kozłowski and Rafał Stasik
Water 2023, 15(10), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101814 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
The impact of controlled drainage (CD) on the groundwater table (GWT), drainage outflow, surface runoff, and nitrogen reduction at the drainage system scale in the Wielkopolska region was analyzed in this study. Based on field research, mainly by monitoring of GWT changes in [...] Read more.
The impact of controlled drainage (CD) on the groundwater table (GWT), drainage outflow, surface runoff, and nitrogen reduction at the drainage system scale in the Wielkopolska region was analyzed in this study. Based on field research, mainly by monitoring of GWT changes in 2019–2020, the DRAINMOD model was calibrated and validated. Hydrological soil water balance simulations were carried out with 36 and 9 combinations for CD and free drainage (FD), respectively. The modelling period was March-September for 10 different dry, wet, and normal years from the period of 1961 to 2020. The next step was to use the results of drainage outflow modelling and chemical constituent analyses of drainage water samples to determine NO3-N concentrations and calculate NO3-N pollution loads. As a result of the simulations, the importance of the timing of the start of the outflow retention in the adopted model variants was determined, indicating the earliest assumed date of 1 March. The appropriate CD start date as well as the initial GWT has a significant impact on the effectiveness of CD application in reducing the volume of drainage outflow and reducing the amount of NO3-N entering open water with it. The application of CD under the conditions of the analyzed drainage facility makes it possible to retain up to 22 kg of NO3-N per hectare. Full article
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23 pages, 11781 KiB  
Article
Specifications and Accuracy of Rainfall Forecast Required for Pre-Release at Multi-Purpose Reservoirs in Japan
by Hayato Fujita and Shinjiro Kanae
Water 2023, 15(7), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071277 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Pre-release is the discharge from a reservoir before a flood to enhance flood control capability. Its success depends on the performance of rainfall forecasting. However, there is little information regarding the causal relationship between its performance and the success of pre-release. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Pre-release is the discharge from a reservoir before a flood to enhance flood control capability. Its success depends on the performance of rainfall forecasting. However, there is little information regarding the causal relationship between its performance and the success of pre-release. Therefore, the rainfall forecast required for pre-release at 326 multi-purpose reservoirs in Japan is shown quantitatively in this paper. In our analysis, pre-release was simulated based on tentative rainfall forecasts made using observed rainfall data from a period of 17 years (2006 to 2022) with some processing. Then, outputs were evaluated in terms of two risks: not avoiding emergency spillway gate operation and no recovery of water use capacity. The results of five elements were reached: (1) the characteristics of situations requiring pre-release, the required (2) forecast length and (3) spatial resolution, the required accuracy of (4) the rainfall amount, and (5) the position of rainfall zone. For (1), pre-release is required nationwide in typhoons or stationary fronts at a frequency of four instances per year. For (2) and (3), assuming perfect accuracy, the current specifications of rainfall forecast in Japan: forecast length of 84 h or more and the combined use of 5 km and 20 km spatial resolution are generally effective in themselves. For (4) and (5), possible uncertainties in the rainfall amount and the position of rainfall zone needs to be decreased by one digit for avoiding emergency spillway gate operations, while excessive pre-release tends not to result in no recovery of water use capacity. Full article
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17 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
Extreme Flood Levels during the Operation of Cascade Reservoirs: A Case Study of the Lower Yangtze River in 2020
by Hua Ge and Lingling Zhu
Water 2023, 15(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050851 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Flood disasters related to climate change are becoming increasingly frequent, indicating the potential for repeated future incidence. It is essential to fully understand the causes and mechanisms of flood formation to reduce future losses. By taking the extreme flood in the lower Yangtze [...] Read more.
Flood disasters related to climate change are becoming increasingly frequent, indicating the potential for repeated future incidence. It is essential to fully understand the causes and mechanisms of flood formation to reduce future losses. By taking the extreme flood in the lower Yangtze River in 2020 as an example and using hydrological and rainfall data of the basin, the formation process and triggering factors of a flood disaster were analyzed in this study. The flooding process can be divided into six typical stages, in which the long duration plum rain season, frequent and high-intensity rainstorms, and high overlapping rainfall areas are the preconditions for flood formation, whereas frequent encounters of floods in the main stream and tributaries of the middle and lower Yangtze River are the decisive factors. In addition, flood drainage along the lower reaches and the jacking effect of the downstream tide level play a role in promoting flooding. During this process, the joint operation of cascade reservoirs plays a key role in the prevention of catastrophic floods. The aforementioned results can provide a reference for flood control strategies in case of similar floods in the future. Full article
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25 pages, 4362 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of the Quality and Quantity of Water Retained in Closed Granite Quarries with the View to Mitigate the Effects of Droughts in Agriculture
by Bartosz Jawecki and Tomasz Kowalczyk
Water 2023, 15(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040782 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
This paper presents the results of bathymetric measurements of quarry lakes located in inactive granite quarries (Poland, Lower Silesia, County Strzelin), which were used, among other reasons, to determine the surface area, depth, and volume of water retained in the analysed quarry lakes. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of bathymetric measurements of quarry lakes located in inactive granite quarries (Poland, Lower Silesia, County Strzelin), which were used, among other reasons, to determine the surface area, depth, and volume of water retained in the analysed quarry lakes. The usability of water in quarry lakes for agricultural irrigation was also assessed, based on the FAO Guidelines and the PN-84/C-04635 standard. The average surface area of the analysed quarry lakes was 0.99 ha, the average depth was 6.0 m, and the maximum depth was 14.3 m. At the same time, the total volume of the retained water amounted to 307.8 thousand m3, which accounts for 10.6% of the retention capacity of water reservoirs situated in the catchment of the Oława River. The average values of water quality indicators were as follows: electrical conductivity—0.332 mS × cm−1; sodium adsorption ratio—0.56; total dissolved solids—212.4 mg/L; water pH—7.8; BOD5—2.4 mgO2/L. The mean concentrations of ions had the following values: nitrates—0.91 mgN-NO3/L; sulphates—176.3 mg SO42−/L; chlorides—36.56 mg Cl/L; sodium ions—14.8 mg Na+/L; calcium—41.3 mg Ca2+/L; magnesium—7.48 mg Mg2+/L; manganese—0.1 mg Mn/L; and iron—0.01 mg Fe/L. The concentrations of water quality indicators that were recorded for the analysed Strzelin quarry lakes were similar to those observed in natural lakes and uncharged water bodies. Water from the analysed quarry lakes met (with some minor limitations) the requirements that enable them to be used for agricultural irrigation. The volume of the water retained in the analysed quarry lakes constitutes an important element of the total balance of water retained in all the reservoirs, ponds, and all Strzelin quarry lakes situated in the catchment of the Oława River, accounting for 10.6% of the total volume of retained water. The article presents the innovative concept of the possibility of using water from quarry lakes in agriculture, based on their quantity and quality and the requirements for the purpose for which they will be used, e.g., for agricultural irrigation. Full article
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23 pages, 3526 KiB  
Article
Agricultural Pressures on the Quality of Ground and Surface Waters in Catchments of Artificial Reservoirs
by Agnieszka Lawniczak-Malińska, Bogumił Nowak and Kamil Pajewski
Water 2023, 15(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040661 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Changes in nutrient concentrations in groundwater were investigated to determine the impact of agriculture on water quality in artificial lakes. The study covered three reservoirs in an agricultural area of Wielkopolska (central-western part of Poland). Assessing the agricultural impact required a network of [...] Read more.
Changes in nutrient concentrations in groundwater were investigated to determine the impact of agriculture on water quality in artificial lakes. The study covered three reservoirs in an agricultural area of Wielkopolska (central-western part of Poland). Assessing the agricultural impact required a network of piezometers around the reservoirs, used to determine the degree of groundwater pollution from nutrients supplied to the reservoirs. Moreover, the analysis covered the quality of water in streams flowing into the reservoirs, and in the reservoirs themselves. Field research was conducted every month of the growing season from March to November. The analysis covered land inclination, ground permeability, and soil type. Detailed objectives included: (1) assessment of the agricultural impact on the chemical parameters of ground and surface water quality, and (2) evaluation of the impact of different sources of agricultural pollution on water quality in artificial reservoirs in regards to their management. This study revealed high dynamics of nutrient concentrations, particularly for nitrates and phosphates, in groundwater and surface water. A significant effect of maize cultivation on an increase in nitrate concentrations in the groundwater of the catchment of the Przebędowo Reservoir was evidenced, as well as a substantial effect of the functioning of an animal farm on the quality of groundwaters in the catchment of the Lachotka Reservoir. The nutrient load of agricultural origin in the catchment of the Miedzichowo Reservoir was relatively low. Our study revealed elevated amounts of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, detected more frequently in groundwater than in running waters, which confirms our hypothesis of the importance of groundwater analysis in detecting the source of pollution of the studied lakes. High nutrient concentrations recorded in groundwater leached from arable fields were also observed in the summer period, failing to confirm the hypothesis that the greatest effect of factors would be related to the spring effect of arable fields on water quality (lack of compact vegetation cover, high water level, etc.). Our study also indicated a greater importance of the type of land use than lithology or permeability of deposits. Full article
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19 pages, 5468 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Changes in and Conservation Guidelines for Water Caltrop (Trapa natans L.) in Two Reservoirs in Poland
by Szymon Jusik, Łukasz Bryl, Ryszard Staniszewski and Krzysztof Achtenberg
Water 2023, 15(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15020295 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Climate change, worsening freshwater quality, and anthropogenic factors have caused water caltrop to lose approximately 80% of its habitat in Poland since the early 1980s. The presence of this plant species has substantially changed since the end of the 19th century. Our aim [...] Read more.
Climate change, worsening freshwater quality, and anthropogenic factors have caused water caltrop to lose approximately 80% of its habitat in Poland since the early 1980s. The presence of this plant species has substantially changed since the end of the 19th century. Our aim in this study was to examine the habitat and conservation status of Trapa natans in the Szumirad reservoir and Nowokuźnicki pond reserve in Poland and to indicate sources of potential hazards for the analyzed population. To achieve this aim, we spatially analyzed the changes in the total reservoir area, dynamics of species population, physico-chemical parameters of water, and climatic data. For the Szumirad reservoir, we observed substantial changes in water caltrop quantity and condition. For the Nowokuźnicki pond reserve, we found a serious threat to the Trapa habitat posed by the developing Nupharo–Nymphaeetum albae association, which is a strong competitor of nymphaeids. The obtained results indicated that surface waters localized in protected areas might play an important role in maintaining the population of water caltrop. On the basis of our analyses of selected populations, we emphasize that present protection procedures should be supplemented with the active protection of the species. Full article
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18 pages, 5882 KiB  
Article
Water Reservoirs in Plans to Improve Navigability of the Lower Section of the Vistula
by Łukasz Pieron, Krzysztof Woś and Krzysztof Wrzosek
Water 2022, 14(24), 4042; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244042 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Retention reservoirs are one of the basic elements of water management. Multifunctional, they are used for flood protection, drought prevention and other purposes. Water reservoirs can also play a fundamental role in improving navigability on the lower section of the Vistula River from [...] Read more.
Retention reservoirs are one of the basic elements of water management. Multifunctional, they are used for flood protection, drought prevention and other purposes. Water reservoirs can also play a fundamental role in improving navigability on the lower section of the Vistula River from the Włocławek barrage to the mouth of the Gdansk Bay. Their implementation is a determinant for the possibility of restoring the economic role of the river in question. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the current navigation conditions and the state of the regulatory buildings on the Lower Vistula. The investments necessary to achieve international parameters of the waterway were also determined, together with the calculation of financial benefits related to their implementation. This was possible based on the conducted bathymetric measurements, spatial analyses, economic calculations and queries of the obtained studies. It was established that fairway depths of 1.4 m are ensured for 180 days per year on average. On the other hand, the construction of five barrages (Siarzewo, Solec Kujawski, Chełmno, Grudziądz and Gniew) will make it possible to achieve at least a navigability class IV (international) on the section of the Vistula River waterway. In addition, the barrages will enable the retention of 1.2 billion m3 of water and will be associated with financial benefits such as shipping use, flood protection and counteracting the effects of drought. On this account, annual revenues may amount to approximately PLN 3.5 billion. This shows that the construction of the reservoirs is profitable, and the proposed solutions should be implemented in the context of sustainable water management and adaptation to climate change. Full article
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22 pages, 4676 KiB  
Article
Role of Multifunctional Water Reservoirs in the Upper Vistula Basin in Reducing Flood Risk
by Krzysztof Woś, Radosław Radoń, Tomasz Tekielak, Krzysztof Wrzosek, Łukasz Pieron and Michał Piórecki
Water 2022, 14(24), 4025; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244025 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Multifunctional flood protection reservoirs of regional importance have been controversial for many years due to their significant environmental impact. The impact is especially observed at the implementation stage. Undeniably, properly managed large water reservoirs are the most effective element of active flood protection [...] Read more.
Multifunctional flood protection reservoirs of regional importance have been controversial for many years due to their significant environmental impact. The impact is especially observed at the implementation stage. Undeniably, properly managed large water reservoirs are the most effective element of active flood protection and significantly reduce the flood wave, thus limiting losses in housing, infrastructure, industry, or agriculture. At the same time, multifunctional reservoirs pursue other goals that are related to reducing shortages and counteracting the effects of drought, water supply, hydropower, or recreation. In the era of rapidly advancing climate and geopolitical changes, their role seems indispensable when it comes to responsible and coordinated water management in Poland. An open question is how to fully use the potential and to what extent it is possible for the system of reservoirs located on different watercourses to work together in the era of the progressive development of the country resulting in significant changes in land use (sealing large catchment areas) in relation to design assumptions. The article presents an analysis of the work of selected water reservoirs located in the basin of the upper Vistula during the floods that took place in the last decade. On the basis of the obtained conclusions, the authors present recommendations on how to effectively manage the network of reservoirs during a flood while minimizing losses of the water retained in them, which should be used to meet other goals of water management. Full article
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17 pages, 4507 KiB  
Article
The Use of Lime for Drainage of Cohesive Soils Built into Hydraulic Engineering Embankments
by Maksymilian Połomski and Mirosław Wiatkowski
Water 2022, 14(22), 3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223700 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
This paper examines whether lime can be used for the drainage of cohesive soils built into hydraulic engineering embankments. It is a common practice, as early as the planning stage, to seek to reduce costs and accelerate work while maintaining the quality of [...] Read more.
This paper examines whether lime can be used for the drainage of cohesive soils built into hydraulic engineering embankments. It is a common practice, as early as the planning stage, to seek to reduce costs and accelerate work while maintaining the quality of work. Although lime stabilisation is not currently a widely used solution in the hydraulic engineering sector, it can play an important role in the future. Lime stabilisation can be considered an optimal solution as it shortens the embankment construction by eliminating the need to replace the soil when it is over-wet. This paper investigates whether it is possible to apply lime treatment in the forming of hydraulic engineering embankments as well as analyses the efficiency of mechanical soil drainage and compares it against chemical drainage (lime stabilisation) based on the example of the construction of the Szalejów Górny dry flood control reservoir located in south-western Poland. It presents the results of geotechnical investigations carried out during the construction phase and compares them with cases reported in the literature. The observation of the construction process reveals a high efficiency and effectiveness of quicklime (CaO) as a stabiliser in the soil used for reservoir dams. Adoption of this technology made it possible to achieve significantly higher embankment formation rates (max. approx. 14,000 m3/week) than when mechanical drainage was used (max. approx. 11,000 m3/week). It was also noted that the lime stabilisation process was significantly independent of unfavourable weather conditions, resulting in frequent high weekly efficiencies. Geotechnical tests on samples of the lime-stabilised soil built into the dam body confirmed the possibility of obtaining favourable strength parameters, particularly with regard to the angle of internal friction, cohesion and degree of plasticity. Therefore, it can be expected that lime will be used more widely in the formation of hydraulic engineering embankments and that soil stabilisation technology will be applied more frequently. Full article
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17 pages, 3990 KiB  
Article
Deriving an Optimal Operation Plan for Hydraulic Facilities with Complex Channels through Unsteady Flow Simulations
by Yeon-Moon Choo, Won-Seok Park and Jong-Gu Kim
Water 2022, 14(21), 3457; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14213457 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
In recent years, the frequency of flooding damage has increased owing to torrential rains caused by abnormal weather and rising sea levels, which can be attributed to global warming. In particular, in the case of low-tide rivers, when a high tide and critical [...] Read more.
In recent years, the frequency of flooding damage has increased owing to torrential rains caused by abnormal weather and rising sea levels, which can be attributed to global warming. In particular, in the case of low-tide rivers, when a high tide and critical rainfall occur simultaneously, the flood damage will increase due to the increased external water level. The establishment of a disaster prevention plan through a simulation of existing inequality streams may be suitable for general rivers; however, it is inadequate for considering the effects of tide changes over time, such as those in a reduced tide stream. Therefore, in this study, an optimal operation plan is formulated based on unsteady flow simulations in regions where a large number of hydraulic facilities are installed, and an optimal river management plan is derived for the flood season. For the Ara Waterway (Ara Stream) and Gulpo Stream managed by the Korea Water Resources Corporation, various hydraulic facilities (weir, inverted syphon, etc.) are operated in conjunction with the West Sea to mitigate the continuous flood damage. In that context, a West Sea drainage gate has been installed. Correspondingly, it is necessary to optimize the flood exclusion capacity by deriving an optimal operation plan because it directly affects the water level in hydraulic facilities such as the Right No. 1, Left No. 1, and flood gates, which are the most important drainage structures for the Gulpo Stream operation. Herein, through a trial-and-error method, an optimal operation plan is derived to reduce the flood frequency in the Ara Waterway and Gulpo Stream. Full article
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19 pages, 33050 KiB  
Case Report
Concept and Implementation of Solutions Improving Water Relations in the Area of the Flooded Opencast Lignite Mine Kazimierz Północ in the East Wielkopolska Region (Central-West Poland)
by Bogumił Nowak, Paweł Szadek, Krzysztof Szymański and Agnieszka Lawniczak-Malińska
Water 2023, 15(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040706 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Over a period of 30 years, the surface water level in the north-west of Konin, in the east of the Wielkopolska region, decreased by almost 6 m, resulting in a reduction of the surface area of the majority of nearby lakes, the disappearance [...] Read more.
Over a period of 30 years, the surface water level in the north-west of Konin, in the east of the Wielkopolska region, decreased by almost 6 m, resulting in a reduction of the surface area of the majority of nearby lakes, the disappearance of smaller water bodies and wetlands, and the drying out of streams draining the area. The causes of the decrease in the surface and groundwater level in the region are complex. They include both natural and anthropogenic factors, among others broad-scale mining activity. Based on knowledge of the hydrostructural composition of the analysed region and the functioning drainage system of opencast lignite mines, a concept was developed of a change in water supply to the flooded opencast lignite mine, Kazimierz Północ. The task of redirecting waters from the drainage of a nearby opencast mine, Jóźwin IIB, was implemented in 2020. Current observations and forecasts suggest that, owing to the applied solutions, the analysed opencast mine will be flooded in 2023, and not, as previously assumed, at the end of 2021. As a result, groundwater levels in the vicinity of the opencast mine as well as in lakes and rivers within the range of impact of the related depression cone will be restored faster, particularly in the Lake Powidzkie catchment. The objective of the study is to present stages of flooding of the former opencast lignite mine Kazimierz Północ, identify factors determining the process, and describe solutions accelerating it, with a simultaneous environmental impact assessment of the undertaken activities. Full article
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