Hydrogeological Impact of Natural Processes and Anthropogenic Disturbances

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 9126

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China
Interests: hydrogeology; multi-aquifers; groundwater control; land subsidence; soil-water-structure interaction; prevention of groundwater-related disaster; numerical modeling; physical simulation
Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China
Interests: hydrogeology; groundwater control; land subsidence; numerical modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural processes (e.g., snowmelt, rainfall, evaporation, and earthquakes) and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., groundwater abstraction, engineering construction, underground coal mining, and even CO2 storage) greatly affect the hydrogeological environment, leading to a series of hydro-geo-environmental problems or hazards, such as groundwater level rise and decline, land subsidence, infrastructure damage, or deterioration in water quality, flood, drought, soil erosion, landslide, and even debris flow. It is of great importance that we analyze the hydrogeological impact of common natural and anthropogenic disturbances, evaluate possible environmental problems, and propose relevant disaster prediction and prevention methods.

For this Special Issue, we welcome original research addressing various issues related to the hydrogeological impact of the abovementioned natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Papers detailing the application of numerical and physical modelling, optimization algorithms and analytical solutions, and field investigations or remote sensing technology to solve related challenges are welcome.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Environmental deformations due to groundwater abstraction in multi-aquifers;
  • Barrier effect of pre-existing geotechnical structures on groundwater flow;
  • Utilization of artificial groundwater recharge to compensate groundwater loss and ease soil settlement;
  • Evolution of land subsidence due to leakage effect of waterproof curtain during deep excavation;
  • Hydrogeological impact assessment by tunnelling, underground coal mining, or CO2 storage;
  • Development of buoyant geotechnical structures due to seasonal groundwater level rise and decline;
  • Effect of snowmelt, rainfall, evaporation, and earthquake on hydrogeological systems;
  • Water quality deterioration and contaminant transport in groundwater due to urbanization.

Prof. Chaofeng Zeng
Dr. Xiuli Xue
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • hydrogeological impact
  • groundwater abstraction
  • artificial groundwater recharge
  • soil–water–structure interaction
  • land subsidence
  • water quality
  • natural processes
  • anthropogenic disturbances
  • tunnelling and mining
  • numerical and physical simulation.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 4323 KiB  
Article
Analytical Solution for Water Inflow into Deeply Buried Symmetrical Subsea Tunnels with Excavation Damage Zones
by Yiheng Pan, Jiarui Qi, Jinfeng Zhang, Peng Xia and Yaxiong Peng
Water 2023, 15(20), 3556; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203556 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The water inflow into tunnels will vary with the development of excavation damage zones (EDZs). Currently, there are few analytical studies on the evaluation of the water inflow into deeply buried symmetrical subsea tunnels, considering the influence of EDZs. Therefore, a solution was [...] Read more.
The water inflow into tunnels will vary with the development of excavation damage zones (EDZs). Currently, there are few analytical studies on the evaluation of the water inflow into deeply buried symmetrical subsea tunnels, considering the influence of EDZs. Therefore, a solution was analytically developed using seepage mechanics, conformal mappings, and the superposition principle. The proposed solution was verified with a simplified solution and a numerical solution. A range of parametric analyses were performed to determine the effects of EDZs and spatial parameters on the water inflow, and an application to an engineering case was carried out. The results in this study reveal that the relative error between the proposed solution and the numerical solution is always less than 2.5% when the ratio of the buried depth to the radius of the tunnel is greater than or equal to 4. The water inflow increases significantly at an early stage of increasing the EDZ permeability coefficient, then gradually stabilizes and increases approximately linearly with the EDZ thickness. The effects of EDZs are greater with smaller buried depths and greater distances between the two tunnel centres. Compared with a single subsea tunnel, there is a diverting effect between the symmetrical subsea tunnels, which can be promoted by increasing the EDZ parameters. Moreover, this diverting effect increases as the buried depth increases and the distance between the two tunnel centres decreases. The application in this study shows that an increase of 13.82% to 30.42% in the water inflow occurred after considering the EDZs’ effects. The proposed solution can provide an efficient method to evaluate the water inflow into the deeply buried symmetrical subsea tunnels with EDZs. Full article
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14 pages, 3882 KiB  
Article
Simulation on TN and TP Distribution of Sediment in Liaohe Estuary National Wetland Park Using MIKE21-Coupling Model
by Xiaofeng Lu, Yu Dong, Qing Liu, Hongfei Zhu, Xingxing Xu, Jing Liu and Yi Wang
Water 2023, 15(15), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152727 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
A hydrodynamic-water quality model was established using MIKE21 to analyze the distribution of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the wetland sediments of Liaohe Estuary National Wetland Park. The purpose of this model is to investigate the spatial and temporal variation [...] Read more.
A hydrodynamic-water quality model was established using MIKE21 to analyze the distribution of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the wetland sediments of Liaohe Estuary National Wetland Park. The purpose of this model is to investigate the spatial and temporal variation patterns in wetland sediments and the distribution of pollutant contents. The research determines the applicability of this model in accurately predicting these patterns. The simulated contour map of the water quality concentration displays significant variation characteristics and reflects the actual concentration of pollutants in the wetland sediment of the Liaohe Estuary, proving the coupled model to be reasonable and accurate. The water quality simulation results indicate that water flowing through the wetland aids in purifying pollutants in the sediment, and the purification effect is more significant during the flood season. The MIKE21 model’s treatment reveals that the content of TN in wetland sediments decreases from southwest to northeast in the surface layer, following the flow direction of surface water. As the depth increases, the content of TN also decreases, with the bottom layer showing a decrease from southwest to northeast. The TP in wetland sediments receives surface water runoff and diffuses from upstream to downstream. The content of TP gradually decreases with increasing depth. Full article
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22 pages, 5155 KiB  
Article
Analytical Solution of the One-Dimensional Transport of Ionic Contaminants in Porous Media with Time-Varying Velocity
by Xing Zeng, Tong Gao, Linhui Xie and Zijian He
Water 2023, 15(8), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081530 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The one-dimensional convection–dispersion equation has been widely used to describe the migration process of contaminant leachate through barriers. However, most of the existing solutions are limited to simple conditions. In this study, a one-dimensional convection–dispersion model with time-dependent velocity was established while considering [...] Read more.
The one-dimensional convection–dispersion equation has been widely used to describe the migration process of contaminant leachate through barriers. However, most of the existing solutions are limited to simple conditions. In this study, a one-dimensional convection–dispersion model with time-dependent velocity was established while considering the change in the permeability coefficient. The analytical solution of the model was obtained by using the integral transformation method. Based on the analytical model, three special conditions were assumed for comparison. The results showed that the concentration levels of pollutants inside the barrier would significantly increase with the increase in the flow velocity, and the pollutant concentrations inside the barrier would be increased by four times compared with the normal flow velocity when the flow rate increased by two times. The transports of heavy metal ions with variable velocities through soil–bentonite and soil–attapulgite barriers were predicted under field conditions. The predicted results showed that the breakthrough time would be reduced by as much as two times. In engineering practice, a barrier’s service performance can be improved by controlling the temperature of the seepage field and improving the chemical compatibility of the barrier materials. Full article
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17 pages, 2647 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Coastal Sediment Reinforcement by Induced Carbonate Precipitation by Different Enzyme Sources
by Rui Ding, Ziyu Wang, Xiangyu Zhao, Peng Cao, Xin Chen and Wenjing Chen
Water 2023, 15(8), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081525 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
Coastal erosion is increasing worldwide due to the increasing frequency of extreme natural phenomena and excessive human exploitation. In this study, a small model experiment was conducted to investigate the solidification effects of three enzyme sources—soybean urease, freshwater Bacillus pasteurella, and seawater [...] Read more.
Coastal erosion is increasing worldwide due to the increasing frequency of extreme natural phenomena and excessive human exploitation. In this study, a small model experiment was conducted to investigate the solidification effects of three enzyme sources—soybean urease, freshwater Bacillus pasteurella, and seawater domesticated Bacillus pasteurella—on coastal sediments and their impacts in a seawater environment. The solidifying effect of different enzyme sources was determined by measuring the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the cured specimen model. The influence of solidified seawater in a seawater environment was obtained by measuring the changes in the pH value, calcium ion concentration, and ammonia nitrogen content of solidified seawater. The results show that different enzyme sources have a certain strengthening effect on coastal sediments. The mechanical properties of coastal sediments can be enhanced by increasing the amount of enzyme solution or level of solidification and can effectively resist simulated flow erosion. Comparing the reinforcement effects of different enzyme sources, it can be seen. It was observed that Bacillus pasteurella acclimated in seawater had better reinforcement effects than Bacillus pasteurella fresh water, and Bacillus pasteurella fresh water had better reinforcement effects than soybean urease. In the seawater measurement tests, the solidification of coastal sediments using different enzyme sources led to a decrease in the seawater pH value, and the acidification of seawater dissolved the generated calcium carbonate, increased the concentration of calcium ions in seawater, and produced ammonia nitrogen as a byproduct in the seawater. It was observed that, compared with the other two enzyme source solutions, the seawater-domesticated Bacillus pasteurella can better adapt to the high-salt environment of seawater, microbial metabolism is not inhibited, urea decomposition ability is improved, and calcium carbonate production is higher, which can effectively improve the engineering characteristics of coastal sediments and play a positive role in coastal protection and development. Full article
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15 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pre-Existing Underground Structures on Groundwater Flow and Strata Movement Induced by Dewatering and Excavation
by Tengyun Xue, Xiuli Xue, Sichun Long, Qiunan Chen, Shide Lu and Chaofeng Zeng
Water 2023, 15(4), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040814 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Based on an actual excavation of a metro station in Tianjin, China, a fluid–solid coupling numerical model was developed to study the characteristics of groundwater flow and strata movement induced by dewatering and excavation considering the barrier effect of pre-existing adjacent underground structures. [...] Read more.
Based on an actual excavation of a metro station in Tianjin, China, a fluid–solid coupling numerical model was developed to study the characteristics of groundwater flow and strata movement induced by dewatering and excavation considering the barrier effect of pre-existing adjacent underground structures. Two parameters were selected for the model: the distance between the excavation and the existing underground structure (D), and the buried depth of the adjacent structure (H). By comparing the distribution of groundwater drawdown and deformation modes of the retaining structure and the strata under different working conditions, the influence mechanism of adjacent structures on the movement of groundwater and strata was revealed. The results show that the pile foundations have different effects on the groundwater flow and excavation deformation. Generally, the maximum groundwater drawdown could be enlarged by considering the adjacent underground structure, while the retaining structure deflection would be reduced and the ground settlement could be either enlarged or reduced. Additionally, as D decreases and H increases, a much greater groundwater drawdown and a much smaller retaining structure deflection would appear, which together affect the ground behavior. On the one hand, greater groundwater drawdown would lead to greater ground settlement by soil consolidation, while on the other hand, a smaller retaining structure deflection would lead to smaller ground settlement. Thus, a complex development of ground settlement would appear, and a specific analysis should be performed to assess this in practice, based on a specific H and D. Full article
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13 pages, 7892 KiB  
Article
Fluid-Structure Coupling Creep Characteristics of Red-Bed Soft Rock in South China
by Shuguang Zhang, Xiao Yun, Yu Song, Wenbo Liu and Li Yang
Water 2022, 14(24), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244088 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
In order to study the creep characteristics and mechanism of red-bed soft rock under the water–rock interaction, fluid–structure coupling triaxial compression tests and creep tests under stepwise loading were carried out. Furthermore, the influences of seepage pressure and stress on creep deformation, long-term [...] Read more.
In order to study the creep characteristics and mechanism of red-bed soft rock under the water–rock interaction, fluid–structure coupling triaxial compression tests and creep tests under stepwise loading were carried out. Furthermore, the influences of seepage pressure and stress on creep deformation, long-term strength, Poisson’s ratio, and seepage velocity were analyzed. According to the experimental results, the influence of seepage on the creep of soft rock cannot be ignored. The results show that the seepage leads to a decrease in triaxial strength and long-term strength, and an increase in instantaneous deformation and creep deformation. The failure mode of triaxial compression changes from shear failure to tension-shear conjugate failure, whereas the long-term strength of fluid–structure coupling creep is 60%~70% of the triaxial strength. When the stress level and seepage pressure are relatively small, the Poisson’s ratio of creep increases with the increase of seepage pressure, and the radial creep deformation response lags behind the axial creep deformation. However, at a high stress level and osmotic pressure, the Poisson’s ratio and seepage velocity increase rapidly, and the duration of the accelerated creep is obviously shortened. Through the analysis of the influence of seepage pressure on the seepage velocity, with the increase in the seepage velocity, the seepage velocity changes and fluctuations are more obvious, which further confirms the damaging effect of seepage pressure and erosion on the internal structure. In the field monitoring of actual engineering, the rapid change of seepage velocity can be used as a precursor signal to predict the instability. Therefore, the water–rock interaction cannot be ignored in the analysis of mechanical properties and long-term stability of red-bed soft rocks. Full article
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