Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 5606

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Interests: advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); environmental risk assessment of contaminants; application of nanophotocatalyst for water treatment; leading-edge technologies for water treatment; industrial wastewater treatment

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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Republic of Korea
Interests: advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); graphene-like carbon; nanomaterial; micropollutants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Integrated Environmental Engineering, Pyeongtaek University, Pyeongtaek, Republic of Korea
Interests: application of MOFs for water treatment; membrane treatment; biorefinery process; emerging contaminants; biological N, P removal

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our aim is to create a Special Issue on “Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment” to be published in Water. The manuscripts selected for publication will demonstrate the state-of-the-art technologies in wastewater treatment. Topics of interest for this Special Issue include but are not limited to: Advanced adsorption process (e.g.,  modified carbon-based materials, nanoadsorbent ); Advanced-oxidation processes (e.g., UV/H2O2, ozone, peroxide, sulfate-radical based AOPs, Plasma-based AOPs) in the removal of micropollutants and emerging pollutants in regional and global level; Hybrid treatment processes (e.g., electro catalytic oxidation, plasma catalytic oxidation); Emerging technologies (e.g., electrocoagulation, photocatalysis, nanotechnology).

Prof. Dr. Afshin Maleki
Prof. Dr. Jae-Kyu Yang
Prof. Dr. Jeong Hyub Ha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging pollutants removal
  • application of new materials for water treatment
  • application of high-tech systems for water treatment
  • application of nanotechnology in water treatment
  • water treatment in crisis and emergency situations
  • water treatment in rural areas and small decentralized communities
  • application of AOPs and hybrid methods for water treatment
  • management of the sludge produced in water treatment plants
  • techno-economic assessment of water treatment systems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3263 KiB  
Article
Response Surface Methodology Approach to Optimize Parameters for Coagulation Process Using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC)
by Xuemei Ji, Zhihua Li, Mingsen Wang, Zhigang Yuan and Li Jin
Water 2024, 16(11), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16111470 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Coagulation is a process affected by multiple variables, nonlinear mapping and multiple perturbations. In order to realize the precise dosage of flocculants, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was taken as the research object to explore the effects of temperature, water turbidity, pH and CODMn [...] Read more.
Coagulation is a process affected by multiple variables, nonlinear mapping and multiple perturbations. In order to realize the precise dosage of flocculants, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was taken as the research object to explore the effects of temperature, water turbidity, pH and CODMn on the dosage of PAC and coagulation effect. A response surface methodology (RSM) experiment was carried out based on a single-factor experiment. The turbidity, pH and dosage of a single parameter, as well as the interaction term and secondary term, all have significant influence on coagulation effect. The optimal reaction conditions were calculated using Design-Expert software: pH, 7.48; turbidity, 14.59 NTU; dosage, 24.01 mg/L; and the error between the experimental value and the predicted value, 4.08%. Establishing a model with residual turbidity as a consideration index can help to calculate the optimal dosage of PAC, which is conducive to a reasonable and accurate control of the dosage of PAC in the coagulation process, so as to achieve the goal of low turbidity of effluent and low production cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment)
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20 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Robust Adaptive Control of the Offshore Produced Water Treatment Process: An Improved Multivariable MRAC-Based Approach
by Mahsa Kashani, Stefan Jespersen and Zhenyu Yang
Water 2024, 16(6), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060899 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 812
Abstract
The application of deoiling hydrocyclone systems as the downstream of three-phase gravity separator (TPGS) systems is one of the most commonly deployed produced water treatment processes in offshore oil and gas production. Due to the compact system’s complexity and tailor-made features, it is [...] Read more.
The application of deoiling hydrocyclone systems as the downstream of three-phase gravity separator (TPGS) systems is one of the most commonly deployed produced water treatment processes in offshore oil and gas production. Due to the compact system’s complexity and tailor-made features, it is always challenging to develop some optimally coordinated control solution for the coupled hydrocyclone and TPGS systems. It is obvious that coordinated control can better fulfill legislative discharge regulation by robustly maintaining high separation efficiencies. This paper presents a new control solution for a set of integrated hydrocyclone and TPGS systems by applying an improved multi-variable model reference adaptive control (MV-MRAC) approach with the aim of achieving both asymptotic output tracking and unknown disturbance rejection. A robust MV-MRAC controller design is proposed based on a control parameterization derived from a factorization of a high-frequency gain matrix Kp=LDS as a product of three matrices, where L represents unity lower triangular, D=sign(D) represents diagonal, and S represents positive definite, and a teaching–learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm for optimizing the adaption rates. The developed solution is analyzed and compared with a commonly deployed PI control solution on a model that is derived from a lab-scale produced water treatment process. This simulation study demonstrates the promising potential of the proposed control solution compared with the currently deployed PI control solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment)
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17 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Peering into a Simplified Digestor for Households: Performance, Cost and Carbon-Neutral Niche
by Xiaoqin He, Sayed Mohammad Nasiruddin, Xiaoqin Zhou, Zifu Li, Heinz-Peter Mang, Roman Ryndin, Humayun Kabir and Sayed Mohammad Nazim Uddin
Water 2024, 16(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010036 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
In this study, a black-shading cylindrical water tank made of high-density polyethylene was locally manufactured as a household digestor for treating cow manure in Bangladesh. Effluent slurry instead of water was reused for manure dilution under manure-to-slurry ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, to [...] Read more.
In this study, a black-shading cylindrical water tank made of high-density polyethylene was locally manufactured as a household digestor for treating cow manure in Bangladesh. Effluent slurry instead of water was reused for manure dilution under manure-to-slurry ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, to assess this small prototype’s production efficiency and feasibility. The specific biogas production at both ratios matched well, by 0.12 m3/kg VS and 0.14 m3/kg VS, respectively, while the former slurry dilution operation outperformed in daily and accumulative biogas production by 16% and 57%, correspondingly, referring to 0.49 Nm3/d on average and 8.55 Nm3 in total, potentially meeting a 2 h household cooking energy requirement. From a nationwide viewpoint, slurry dilution was proven to be a great initiative to conserve water amounting to 50,286,751 m3 for 114,810 households of 6 person-equivalents annually, while cutting chemical costs by USD 32,720,684/yr and trimming annual greenhouse gas emission by 1.8 million tons of CO2e. This study revealed that a small prototype digestor could be an alternative energy source for cost-effective and eco-friendly household applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment)
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26 pages, 7728 KiB  
Article
Application of Magnetic Nanocomposites in Water Treatment: Core–Shell Fe3O4 Material for Efficient Adsorption of Cr(VI)
by Heng Li, Junpeng Hua, Ranran Li, Yan Zhang, Huanhuan Jin, Shijing Wang and Guoyin Chen
Water 2023, 15(15), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152827 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Since ferric tetroxide (Fe3O4) has strong magnetic properties, coating amorphous silica (SiO2) with Fe3O4 nanoparticles can protect the magnetic Fe3O4 particles and form a new magnetic adsorbent with a core–shell structure [...] Read more.
Since ferric tetroxide (Fe3O4) has strong magnetic properties, coating amorphous silica (SiO2) with Fe3O4 nanoparticles can protect the magnetic Fe3O4 particles and form a new magnetic adsorbent with a core–shell structure and small pore size, the strong magnetic properties of which can efficiently solve the problem of the difficult separation and recovery of heavy metals from wastewater affecting present-day adsorption techniques. In this paper, SiO2-coated nanoscale Fe3O4 particles were prepared using a modified sol–gel method for the adsorption and removal of Cr(VI) at lower pollution concentrations. The adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and a magnetic vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and its adsorption performance was systematically investigated in terms of initial concentration, pH, and temperature. The experiments showed that the adsorption effect was optimal when the initial solution Cr(VI) was 40 mg/L. The adsorption capacity increased with a decrease in the initial solution’s pH and decreased with an increase in temperature. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) at low concentrations was much higher than that of other conventional adsorbents, the calculated unit adsorption capacity reached 13.609 mg·g−1, and the removal rate reached 64.8%. In addition, the strong magnetic nanocomposite (MS) had excellent recoverability, could achieve desorption via alkaline washing, and retained about 75% of the initial adsorption capacity after six cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment)
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24 pages, 12111 KiB  
Article
Tris(2-benzimidazolyl)amine (NTB)-Modified Metal-Organic Framework: Preparation, Characterization, and Mercury Ion Removal Studies
by Phani Brahma Somayajulu Rallapalli, Suk Soon Choi, Hiresh Moradi, Jae-Kyu Yang, Jae-Hoon Lee and Jeong Hyub Ha
Water 2023, 15(14), 2559; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142559 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Heavy metal ions (HMIs) are exceedingly hazardous to both humans and the environment, and the necessity to eliminate them from aqueous systems prompted the development of novel materials. In this study, tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine (NTB) was impregnated into MIL-101-(Cr) metal-organic framework using an incipient wetness [...] Read more.
Heavy metal ions (HMIs) are exceedingly hazardous to both humans and the environment, and the necessity to eliminate them from aqueous systems prompted the development of novel materials. In this study, tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine (NTB) was impregnated into MIL-101-(Cr) metal-organic framework using an incipient wetness impregnation approach, and the ability of the composite material to adsorb Hg2+ ions from the water was examined. The synthesized materials were analyzed with several physico-chemical techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, nitrogen sorption isotherms at 77 K, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. MIL-101-NTB quickly adsorbs 93.9% of Hg2+ ions within 10 min from a 10.0 ppm single ion solution. A better fit of the kinetic data to a pseudo-second-order model validated the chemisorption of Hg2+ ions on MIL-101-NTB. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity obtained at 125 ppm initial concentration was 111.03 mg/g. Despite the presence of other competing ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+), high Hg2+ ions removal efficiency (99.6%, 1.0 ppm initial concentration) was maintained in the diverse ion batch adsorption studies. A 0.2 M EDTA solution could desorb the Hg2+ ions, and cyclic Hg2+ ions sorption studies indicated that MIL-101-NTB might have a high Hg2+ ions removal efficiency for at least five consecutive cycles. Based on the FTIR and XPS analyses, Hg2+ ions chelation by NTB molecules and electrostatic interactions between Hg2+ ions and carboxylate groups in MIL-101-NTB are plausible mechanisms for Hg2+ ions adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Water Treatment)
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