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Viruses 2018, 10(8), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080391

Phylogenetic Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Hepatitis E Virus Genome (Zoonotic Genotype 3) in Swine Samples from Mexico

1
Laboratory of Virology, Microbiology and Immunology Department, Veterinary Medicine and Husbandry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 04510, Mexico
2
Academic Council of the Biological, Chemical and Medical Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 04510, Mexico
3
Swine Medicine and Husbandry Department, Veterinary Medicine and Husbandry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 04510, Mexico
4
Biotechnology Institute (IBT), National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca 62209, Morelos, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging public health problem with an estimated 20 million infections each year. In Mexico, Orthohepevirus A, genotype 2, has been reported in humans, but genotype 3 has only been reported in swine (zoonotic). No diagnostic tests are publicly available in Mexico, and only partial sequences have been reported from swine samples. Hence, research is necessary to determine circulating strains, understand the features and dynamics of infection on pig farms, determine how to implement surveillance programs, and to assess public health risks. In this study, a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to obtain a complete genome of swine HEV. Liver, feces, and bile samples were taken at slaughterhouses and a farm in Mexico. RT-PCR was used to determine positive samples and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Of the 64 slaughterhouse samples, one bile sample was positive (B1r) (1.56%). Of 21 sample pools from farm animals, 14 were positive (66.66%), representing all stages of production. A complete sequence strain MXCDg3_B1c|_2016 was obtained from the bile of a domestic swine in the fattening stage. In addition, two partial sequences—MXCDg3_H2cons|_2016 (1473 nt) and MXCDg3_C3Acons|_2016 (4777 nt)—were obtained from sampled farm animals. Comparison with all reported genome HEV sequences showed similarity to genotype 3 subgenotype a (G3a), which has been previously reported in acute cases of human hepatitis in the US, Colombia, China, and Japan. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis E; hepatitis; swine; zoonosis; bile; characterization hepatitis E; hepatitis; swine; zoonosis; bile; characterization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sotomayor-González, A.; Trujillo-Ortega, M.E.; Taboada-Ramírez, B.I.; Sandoval-Jaime, C.; Sarmiento-Silva, R.E. Phylogenetic Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Hepatitis E Virus Genome (Zoonotic Genotype 3) in Swine Samples from Mexico. Viruses 2018, 10, 391.

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