Next Article in Journal
A Comprehensive RNA-seq Analysis of Human Bocavirus 1 Transcripts in Infected Human Airway Epithelium
Next Article in Special Issue
The One Health Approach is Necessary for the Control of Rift Valley Fever Infections in Egypt: A Comprehensive Review
Previous Article in Journal
Combining a Fusion Inhibitory Peptide Targeting the MERS-CoV S2 Protein HR1 Domain and a Neutralizing Antibody Specific for the S1 Protein Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) Showed Potent Synergism against Pseudotyped MERS-CoV with or without Mutations in RBD
Previous Article in Special Issue
Wildlife Management Practices Associated with Pathogen Exposure in Non-Native Wild Pigs in Florida, U.S.
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010032

Experimental Evaluation of the Role of Ecologically-Relevant Hosts and Vectors in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype Displacement

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 6 January 2019
  |  
PDF [4156 KB, uploaded 6 January 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus that is maintained via transmission between Culex spp. mosquitoes and water birds across a large swath of southern Asia and northern Australia. Currently JEV is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in humans in Asia. Five genotypes of JEV (G-I–G-V) have been responsible for historical and current outbreaks in endemic regions, and G-I and G-III co-circulate throughout Southern Asia. While G-III has historically been the dominant genotype worldwide, G-I has gradually but steadily displaced G-III. The objective of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of genotype displacement for JEV by evaluating both avian host and mosquito vector susceptibilities to infection with representatives from both G-I and G-III. Since ducks and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes are prevalent avian hosts and vectors perpetuating JEV transmission in JE endemic areas, experimental evaluation of virus replication in these species was considered to approximate the natural conditions necessary for studying the role of host, vectors and viral fitness in the JEV genotype displacement context. We evaluated viremia in ducklings infected with G-I and G-III, and did not detect differences in magnitude or duration of viremia. Testing the same viruses in mosquitoes revealed that the rates of infection, dissemination and transmission were higher in virus strains belonging to G-I than G-III, and that the extrinsic incubation period was shorter for the G-I strains. These data suggest that the characteristics of JEV infection of mosquitoes but not of ducklings, may have play a role in genotype displacement. View Full-Text
Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus; duck; Culex quinquefasciatus; genotype displacement; host competence; vector competence; Asia Japanese encephalitis virus; duck; Culex quinquefasciatus; genotype displacement; host competence; vector competence; Asia
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Karna, A.K.; Bowen, R.A. Experimental Evaluation of the Role of Ecologically-Relevant Hosts and Vectors in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype Displacement. Viruses 2019, 11, 32.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top