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Open AccessReview

The One Health Approach is Necessary for the Control of Rift Valley Fever Infections in Egypt: A Comprehensive Review

by Mohamed Fawzy 1,† and Yosra A. Helmy 2,3,*,†
1
Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
2
Food Animal Health Research Program, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University; Wooster, 44691 OH, USA
3
Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonoses and Animal Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020139
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused high morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in African and the Middle Eastern countries including Egypt. Five major RVF epidemics have been reported in Egypt (1977, 1993, 1994, 1997, and 2003). The virus is transmitted in Egypt by different mosquito’s genera such as Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia, leading to abortions in susceptible animal hosts especially sheep, goat, cattle, and buffaloes. Recurrent RVF outbreaks in Egypt have been attributed in part to the lack of routine surveillance for the virus. These periodic epizootics have resulted in severe economic losses. We posit that there is a critical need for new approaches to RVF control that will prevent or at least reduce future morbidity and economic stress. One Health is an integrated approach for the understanding and management of animal, human, and environmental determinants of complex problems such as RVF. Employing the One Health approach, one might engage local communities in surveillance and control of RVF efforts, rather than continuing their current status as passive victims of the periodic RVF incursions. This review focuses upon endemic and epidemic status of RVF in Egypt, the virus vectors and their ecology, transmission dynamics, risk factors, and the ecology of the RVF at the animal/human interface, prevention, and control measures, and the use of environmental and climate data in surveillance systems to predict disease outbreaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rift Valley Fever (RVF); One Health approach; zoonotic virus; vaccine; Egypt Rift Valley Fever (RVF); One Health approach; zoonotic virus; vaccine; Egypt
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Fawzy, M.; Helmy, Y.A. The One Health Approach is Necessary for the Control of Rift Valley Fever Infections in Egypt: A Comprehensive Review. Viruses 2019, 11, 139.

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