Special Issue "The Complexity of the Potyviral Interaction Network"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kristiina Mäkinen
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Microbiology, P.O.Box 56, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Interests: plant virology, potyviruses, potato virus A infection biology
Dr. Sylvie German-Retana
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UMR BFP 1332 (Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie), Equipe de Virologie, Centre INRA de Bordeaux, CS 20032, 33882, Villenave d’Ornon Cedex, France
Interests: plant virology, potyviruses, recessive resistance, movement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many potyvirus species belong to the most economically significant plant viruses and they cause substantial yield losses to crop plants globally. Due to their efficient spread by aphids, potyviruses are difficult to control. The study of infection biology and host–potyvirus interactions is therefore essential for the development of anti-viral strategies and resistant cultivars.

Potyvirus research is advancing fast in various sectors. Our increasing knowledge about the complex molecular relationships that potyviruses have with their hosts—with the host plant organelles, cell membrane networks, metabolic pathways, and various cellular processes—is building a fascinating picture of the potyviral infection cycle. The eleven multifunctional viral proteins, responsible for orchestrating the potyviral life cycle, are participating in dozens of interactions within the host cells. Regulation of these interactions, which may be pro- or antiviral in nature, is achieved by sequestering the infection stages to various subcellular compartments and by posttranslational modifications of the viral and host proteins.

We invite contributions to enlighten the current state of the art in potyvirus research and to highlight the valuable work carried out in different laboratories throughout the world to combat the severe plant diseases caused by the members of the potyvirus group.

Dr. Kristiina Mäkinen
Dr. Sylvie German-Retana
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • potyvirus infection
  • potyvirus–host interactions
  • potyviral replication and translation
  • intra- and intercellular potyviral movement
  • potyvirus transmission
  • host defense against potyvirus infection
  • potyvirus resistance

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Interaction Network Used by Potyviruses in Virus–Host Interactions at the Protein Level
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121158 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Host proteins that are central to infection of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; family Potyviridae) include the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. The potyviral genome-linked protein (VPg) and the helper component proteinase (HCpro) interact with each other and with eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E [...] Read more.
Host proteins that are central to infection of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; family Potyviridae) include the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. The potyviral genome-linked protein (VPg) and the helper component proteinase (HCpro) interact with each other and with eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E and proteins are involved in the same functions during viral infection. VPg interacts with eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E via the 7-methylguanosine cap-binding region, whereas HCpro interacts with eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E via the 4E-binding motif YXXXXLΦ, similar to the motif in eIF4G. In this study, HCpro and VPg were found to interact in the nucleus, nucleolus, and cytoplasm in cells infected with the potyvirus potato virus A (PVA). In the cytoplasm, interactions between HCpro and VPg occurred in punctate bodies not associated with viral replication vesicles. In addition to HCpro, the 4E-binding motif was recognized in VPg of PVA. Mutations in the 4E-binding motif of VPg from PVA weakened interactions with eIF4E and heavily reduced PVA virulence. Furthermore, mutations in the 4G-binding domain of eIF4E reduced interactions with VPg and abolished interactions with HCpro. Thus, HCpro and VPg can both interact with eIF4E using the 4E-binding motif. Our results suggest a novel interaction network used by potyviruses to interact with host plants via translation initiation factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Complexity of the Potyviral Interaction Network)
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Open AccessArticle
Potato Virus Y Infection Alters Small RNA Metabolism and Immune Response in Tomato
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121100 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
Potato virus Y (PVY) isolate PVYC-to induces growth reduction and foliar symptoms in tomato, but new vegetation displays symptom recovery at a later stage. In order to investigate the role of micro(mi)RNA and secondary small(s)RNA-regulated mechanisms in tomato defenses against PVY, [...] Read more.
Potato virus Y (PVY) isolate PVYC-to induces growth reduction and foliar symptoms in tomato, but new vegetation displays symptom recovery at a later stage. In order to investigate the role of micro(mi)RNA and secondary small(s)RNA-regulated mechanisms in tomato defenses against PVY, we performed sRNA sequencing from healthy and PVYC-to infected tomato plants at 21 and 30 days post-inoculation (dpi). A total of 792 miRNA sequences were obtained, among which were 123 canonical miRNA sequences, many isomiR variants, and 30 novel miRNAs. MiRNAs were mostly overexpressed in infected vs. healthy plants, whereas only a few miRNAs were underexpressed. Increased accumulation of isomiRs was correlated with viral infection. Among miRNA targets, enriched functional categories included resistance (R) gene families, transcription and hormone factors, and RNA silencing genes. Several 22-nt miRNAs were shown to target R genes and trigger the production of 21-nt phased sRNAs (phasiRNAs). Next, 500 phasiRNA-generating loci were identified, and were shown to be mostly active in PVY-infected tissues and at 21 dpi. These data demonstrate that sRNA-regulated host responses, encompassing miRNA alteration, diversification within miRNA families, and phasiRNA accumulation, regulate R and disease-responsive genes. The dynamic regulation of miRNAs and secondary sRNAs over time suggests a functional role of sRNA-mediated defenses in the recovery phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Complexity of the Potyviral Interaction Network)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Transcriptome Differences in Soybean Response to Soybean Mosaic Virus under Normal Light and in the Shade
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090793 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Shading in the intercropping system is a major abiotic factor which influences soybean growth and development, while soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a biotic factor that limits the yield and quality of soybean. However, little is known about the defense response of soybean [...] Read more.
Shading in the intercropping system is a major abiotic factor which influences soybean growth and development, while soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a biotic factor that limits the yield and quality of soybean. However, little is known about the defense response of soybean to SMV in the shade. Thus, in the current study, both intensity and quality (red:far-red, R:FR) of the light were changed to simulate the shaded environment and comparative transcriptome analysis was performed. Morphologically, plant growth was inhibited by SMV, which decreased 35.93% of plant height and 8.97% of stem diameter in the shade. A total of 3548 and 4319 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in soybean plants infected with SMV under normal light and in the shade. Enrichment analysis showed that the plant defense-related genes were upregulated under normal light but downregulated in the shade. Pathways that were repressed include plant-pathogen interaction, secondary metabolism, sugar metabolism, and vitamin metabolism. In addition, genes associated with signaling pathways such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ETH) were also downregulated in the shade. A qRT-PCR assay of 15 DEGs was performed to confirm transcriptome results. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on soybean response to dual stress factors. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms in which soybean plants were infected with SMV in the shade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Complexity of the Potyviral Interaction Network)
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