Special Issue "Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Chioma M. Okeoma
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8651, USA
Interests: HIV; extracellular vesicles; cancer; restriction factors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a generic name that describes a heterogeneous collection of membranous vesicles, which includes ectosomes, exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, oncosomes, and prostasomes, which are released by almost all cell types. Contrary to the previously thought role for EVs―a mechanism to discard non-functional cellular components, various studies have shown that EVs are vehicles through which biologically active molecules can be disseminated to local or distal sites to mediate specific biological roles.

Given the diversity and complexity of EV biogenesis and cargo, it is no secret that EVs and viruses, especially enveloped RNA viruses, have much more in common than previously appreciated. For example, EVs and some viruses are similar in size and have a similar biogenesis. Moreover, EVs from virus-infected cells incorporate both host- and virus-encoded molecules. Thus, with the increase in EV diversity, interest in EV function, EV utility, and their role in physiological and pathophysiological processes has increased. However, the differing features of EVs and viruses, and identifying characteristics dependent on originating cell types, remain largely unknown.

In this Special Issue of Viruses, we want to highlight findings from cutting edge research on the interaction of EVs and viruses from the divergent body of professionals involved in EV/virology research. Of particular interest are studies on the interaction of EVs and viruses in plants, animals, or human hosts. We also invite manuscripts that discus viruses that are likely to respond to EV-based therapy. In addition, this Special Issue focuses on recent findings, knowledge gaps, and perspectives on the following:

  1. The biological implications of the broad EV size diversity and how to distinguish EVs from viral particles;
  2. The role of EV and virus biogenesis pathway in their composition and contribution to biology;
  3. Clinical and translational studies that characterize EV subpopulations and phenotypes under physiological or pathophysiological conditions;
  4. Studies on the compositional properties of EVs released by healthy and virally infected cells, carrying virally encoded molecules or viral particles;
  5. Studies focusing on separating infectious viruses (HIV and other small RNA viruses) from noninfectious EVs carrying viral products (proteins and nucleic acids);
  6. Studies that focus on how noninfectious EVs positively or negatively regulate viral infection;
  7. Studies that manipulate EVs as a means to inhibit viral infection;
  8. Implementation studies focused on applying EVs in therapeutics development.

Dr. Chioma M. Okeoma
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Exosomes
  • Viruses
  • Microvesicles

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Alphaherpesvirus gB Homologs Are Targeted to Extracellular Vesicles, but They Differentially Affect MHC Class II Molecules
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040429 - 10 Apr 2020
Abstract
Herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the best-documented extracellular vesicle (EVs)-incorporated viral proteins. Regarding the sequence and structure conservation between gB homologs, we asked whether bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)-encoded gB share the property of herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) gB [...] Read more.
Herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the best-documented extracellular vesicle (EVs)-incorporated viral proteins. Regarding the sequence and structure conservation between gB homologs, we asked whether bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)-encoded gB share the property of herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) gB to be trafficked to EVs and affect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our data highlight some conserved and differential features of the three gBs. We demonstrate that mature, fully processed BoHV-1 and PRV gBs localize to EVs isolated from constructed stable cell lines and EVs-enriched fractions from virus-infected cells. gB also shares the ability to co-localize with CD63 and MHC II in late endosomes. However, we report here a differential effect of the HSV-1, BoHV-1, and PRV glycoprotein on the surface MHC II levels, and MHC II loading to EVs in stable cell lines, which may result from their adverse ability to bind HLA-DR, with PRV gB being the most divergent. BoHV-1 and HSV-1 gB could retard HLA-DR exports to the plasma membrane. Our results confirm that the differential effect of gB on MHC II may require various mechanisms, either dependent on its complex formation or on inducing general alterations to the vesicular transport. EVs from virus-infected cells also contained other viral glycoproteins, like gD or gE, and they were enriched in MHC II. As shown for BoHV-1 gB- or BoHV-1-infected cell-derived vesicles, those EVs could bind anti-virus antibodies in ELISA, which supports the immunoregulatory potential of alphaherpesvirus gB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Evidence of the Mechanism by Which Polyomaviruses Exploit the Extracellular Vesicle Delivery System during Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060585 - 27 May 2020
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that human viruses can hijack extracellular vesicles (EVs) to deliver proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and whole viral particles during viral persistence in the host. Human polyomavirus (PyV) miRNAs, which downregulate large T-antigen expression and target host factors, help the virus [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests that human viruses can hijack extracellular vesicles (EVs) to deliver proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and whole viral particles during viral persistence in the host. Human polyomavirus (PyV) miRNAs, which downregulate large T-antigen expression and target host factors, help the virus escape immune elimination and may have roles in the success of viral persistence/replication and the development of diseases. In this context, several investigations have detected PyV miRNAs in EVs obtained from cell culture supernatants after viral infection, demonstrating the ability of these vesicles to deliver miRNAs to uninfected cells, potentially counteracting new viral infection. Additionally, PyV miRNAs have been identified in EVs derived from the biological fluids of clinical samples obtained from patients with or at risk of severe PyV-associated diseases and from asymptomatic control healthy subjects. Interestingly, PyV miRNAs were found to be circulating in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva samples from patients despite their PyV DNA status. Recently, the association between EVs and PyV viral particles was reported, demonstrating the ability of PyV viral particles to enter the cell without natural receptor-mediated entry and evade antibody-mediated neutralization or to be neutralized at a step different from that of the neutralization of naked whole viral particles. All these data point toward a potential role of the association between PyVs with EVs in viral persistence, suggesting that further work to define the implication of this interaction in viral reactivation is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles)
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Open AccessReview
Shedding Light on the Role of Extracellular Vesicles in HIV Infection and Wound Healing
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060584 - 27 May 2020
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in intercellular communication. They are naturally released from cells into the extracellular environment. Based on their biogenesis, release pathways, size, content, and function, EVs are classified into exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). Previous research [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in intercellular communication. They are naturally released from cells into the extracellular environment. Based on their biogenesis, release pathways, size, content, and function, EVs are classified into exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). Previous research has documented that EVs, specifically exosomes and MVs, play an important role in HIV infection, either by promoting HIV infection and pathogenesis or by inhibiting HIV-1 to a certain extent. We have also previously reported that EVs (particularly exosomes) from vaginal fluids inhibit HIV at the post-entry step (i.e., reverse transcription, integration). Besides the role that EVs play in HIV, they are also known to regulate the process of wound healing by regulating both the immune and inflammatory responses. It is noted that during the advanced stages of HIV infection, patients are at greater risk of wound-healing and wound-related complications. Despite ongoing research, the data on the actual effects of EVs in HIV infection and wound healing are still premature. This review aimed to update the current knowledge about the roles of EVs in regulating HIV pathogenesis and wound healing. Additionally, we highlighted several avenues of EV involvement in the process of wound healing, including coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Understanding the role of EVs in HIV infection and wound healing could significantly contribute to the development of new and potent antiviral therapeutic strategies and approaches to resolve impaired wounds in HIV patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Extracellular Vesicles as Allies of HIV, HCV and SARS Viruses
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050571 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed entities containing proteins and nucleic acids that mediate intercellular communication, in both physiological and pathological conditions. EVs resemble enveloped viruses in both structural and functional aspects. In full analogy with viral biogenesis, some of these vesicles are [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed entities containing proteins and nucleic acids that mediate intercellular communication, in both physiological and pathological conditions. EVs resemble enveloped viruses in both structural and functional aspects. In full analogy with viral biogenesis, some of these vesicles are generated inside cells and, once released into the extracellular milieu, are called “exosomes”. Others bud from the plasma membrane and are generally referred to as “microvesicles”. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of the current studies on the relationship between EVs and viruses and their involvement in three important viral infections caused by HIV, HCV and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) viruses. HIV and HCV are two well-known pathogens that hijack EVs content and release to create a suitable environment for viral infection. SARS viruses are a new entry in the world of EVs studies, but are equally important in this historical framework. A thorough knowledge of the involvement of the EVs in viral infections could be helpful for the development of new therapeutic strategies to counteract different pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles)
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