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Shedding Light on the Role of Extracellular Vesicles in HIV Infection and Wound Healing

1
Center for Translational Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
2
Farber Hospitalist Service, Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060584
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 25 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in intercellular communication. They are naturally released from cells into the extracellular environment. Based on their biogenesis, release pathways, size, content, and function, EVs are classified into exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). Previous research has documented that EVs, specifically exosomes and MVs, play an important role in HIV infection, either by promoting HIV infection and pathogenesis or by inhibiting HIV-1 to a certain extent. We have also previously reported that EVs (particularly exosomes) from vaginal fluids inhibit HIV at the post-entry step (i.e., reverse transcription, integration). Besides the role that EVs play in HIV, they are also known to regulate the process of wound healing by regulating both the immune and inflammatory responses. It is noted that during the advanced stages of HIV infection, patients are at greater risk of wound-healing and wound-related complications. Despite ongoing research, the data on the actual effects of EVs in HIV infection and wound healing are still premature. This review aimed to update the current knowledge about the roles of EVs in regulating HIV pathogenesis and wound healing. Additionally, we highlighted several avenues of EV involvement in the process of wound healing, including coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Understanding the role of EVs in HIV infection and wound healing could significantly contribute to the development of new and potent antiviral therapeutic strategies and approaches to resolve impaired wounds in HIV patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; HIV; AIDS; wound healing; immune response extracellular vesicles; exosomes; HIV; AIDS; wound healing; immune response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alqatawni, A.; Sharma, A.L.; Attilus, B.; Tyagi, M.; Daniel, R. Shedding Light on the Role of Extracellular Vesicles in HIV Infection and Wound Healing. Viruses 2020, 12, 584.

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